SES4U- Earth and Space Science Unit – Geologic Processes SES4U- Geologic Processes Review 1. Plate Tectonics: a) What is the theory of plate tectonics? b) Explain the characteristics of a divergent boundary. What causes the plate movement? How is a rift valley formed by diverging plates? c) Explain the characteristics of a convergent boundary. What causes the plate movement? What landforms are found on each side of a convergent boundary ? d) Explain the characteristics of a transform boundary. 2. Compare and contrast convection in a pot of boiling water with the convection that occurs within the earth’s mantle. 3. What is a Tsunami and how does it form? What type of plate boundary is required for one to form? Why? 4. Be able to discuss and identify the 3 types of faults 5. Compare and contrast the terms “epicenter” and “focus” with reference to earthquakes 6. How does the Richter scale calculate the magnitude of an earthquake? How much more intense is an earthquake that is 3.1 vs an earthquake that is 2.1 on the scale? 9.5 vs 2.5? 7. What is the Mercalli scale for earthquake intensity? What are the 3 variables it depends on? 8. How are body waves different from surface waves? 9. Explain an easy to understand real life example of each type of wave movement. Primary, Secondary, Love and Rayleigh. Examples can be found in your notes 10. Which waves can travel through solid? liquid? 11. How can comparing p waves and s waves be used to find the epicenter of an earthquake? Outline in steps. 12. Be able to draw and label a cross section diagram of the earth from the crust to the inner core. Be able to discuss some characteristics of each layer. 13. What evidence do seismologists have that explains the density gradient that exists in the mantle? ( think refraction diagrams) 14. Construct a diagram of the earth that contains travelling P and S waves that illustrates an earth with no density changes, layers or differentiation. 15. Construct a diagram that shows the movement of P and S waves through an earth that increases in density as you move through the mantle. 16. Explain how the movement of P and S waves through the earth changes as a wave moves from the crust to the inner core. ( refer to speed and direction) 17. What is a shadow zone? How does it form? 18. Based on the Speed and Direction of P and S waves, what are the 3 postulates about the composition of the inner earth? 19. What can placing seismometers on the surface of a planet tell us about the interior of that planet? Discuss the idea of placing seismometers on the surface of Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus or Neptune. 20. Compare and contrast weathering and erosion 21. What are the 3 steps associated with erosion? 22. What are the 3 types of weathering? 23. Order the following words in range from smallest to largest. SES4U- Earth and Space Science Unit – Geologic Processes Pebble, Clay, Boulder, Cobble, Sand, Silt 24. Discuss where in a river you would find the sizes of rock listed above and why. 25. What are the 3 ways in which rock particles are physically moved. 26. Compare and contrast lava, magma 27. Compare and contrast Lahar and pyroclastic flow 28. Compare and contrast caldera and crater 29. Describe the 3 major types of volcano and their characteristics. 30. Discuss how the viscosity of lava in the 3 types of volcano impacts the overall shape of the volcano. 31. Name 3 major volcanoes discussed in class and identify them by type. 32. Describe 4 ways a volcano and the geologic processes they produce can kill you. 33. What are the geologic conditions required for Karst topography to form? How do stalactites and stalagmites form? 34. Explain any 2 landforms a glacier creates. 35. What is orogeny? How does it relate to the creation of fold mountains? 36. What is an Aeolian process and what landforms does it create? 37. Describe the fluvial processes of down cutting and meandering. What are some landforms that each create?