LEARNING ABOUT PHRASES Phrases Preposition Prepositional phrase A group of words with NO subject and NO verb; therefore, it CANNOT stand alone. A word that shows relationship A prepositional phrase that begins with a preposition and ends with an object of the preposition. The object of the preposition is the noun that follows the preposition. Ex: The boy ran by the window. How to punctuate introductory prepositional phrases: Short prepositional phrase 3words. Introductory prep phrase DOES NOT have a comma at the end, unless the reader could be confused Example: Under the kitchen table the dog cowered. In basketball, uniforms are two-piece outfits. Long prepositional phrase NO COMMA COMMA NEEDED FOR CLARITY 4+ words. Introductory prep phrase MUST HAVE a comma at the end. Example: Under the spreading chestnut tree, the village smithy stands. Infinitive Is “to” plus a verb. Not all the time is “to” an infinitive. Sometimes “to” is a preposition. The way to tell the difference is, if “to” is a preposition it is followed by a noun, and if “to” is an infinitive “to” is followed by a verb. Example: The boys like to run The boys like to run on their way to the store. Prepositional Phrase Appositive Phrases Rename, or explain a noun or pronoun. They are placed immediately before or after the noun or pronoun. *When to use commas on an appositive phrase Restrictive (NEEDED/ESSENTIAL) Non-restrictive (NOT NEEDED) **Think of the commas as a knife, like that information can be cut out It’s needed or essential, then DO NOT use commas around the appositive. Example: My sister Debbie has two grandchildren. (I have more than one sister) It’s NOT needed or NOT essential; then YOU MUST use commas around the appositive. Example: John’s sister , Mary , has one grandchild. (John has only one sister.) Participles They like verbs, but they are NOT. They are functioning as ADJECTIVES because they modify nouns and pronouns. *They verbs that function as adjectives and usually Participles answer the question What kind? or Which one? Examples: end with –ing, -ed, or Which tiles? sometimes –en What kind of child? EXAMPLE: Participle phrases Replace the shattered tiles. Delighted, the child laughed at the clown. A participial phrase includes the participle and any modifiers or complements. Examples: Traveling quickly, we arrived on time. Avoiding delays, we arrived on time. The rabbit hopping along the fence is my pet. Adjectival phrase Is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling Which? Remember: An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun Ex What kind? The library across the road. Ask which library It is a book of poetry Ask what kind of book? Adverbial phrase Remember: An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb by answering the questions: Where? Why? When? In what way to what extent Examples: Where? The yarn rolled across the floor. We are going to Nita’s house. Why? I was worried by the weather report. When? The bus will reach Miami before noon. In what way? He walked with a limp.