Medicine Through Time later years

Notes – e.g. useful weblinks, booklists, films
A fascinating collection of books, manuscripts, archives, films and pictures on
the history of medicine from the earliest times to the present day
BBC Bitesize Revision Trail
Through Time
Wartime Medicine
ALTMAN, L., Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in
Medicine, University of Carolina Press (1998), ISBN: 0520212819
PORTER, R. A Short History of Medicine: Blood & Guts, Penguin (2002)
Modern Medicine
ISBN: 0141010649
STRATHAM, P A Brief History of Medicine from Hippocrates to Gene
Therapy, Robinson, (2005) ISBN: 1845291557
BBC Movies- Chapter 6: Injuries and Shell Shock
G&T Booklet
The Fight Against Disease
Health and the Local Community
Task One:
Welcome to
Task One:
Imagine you are visiting the county of
Gloucestershire, the home of Edward Jenner, at
the start of the nineteenth century.
It is your job to design a tourist brochure to
promote the area. Include the details about
Jenner’s famous discovery and highlight its
impact on the local community.
Go to the Folkestone Library and find the local history reference book
containing the title ‘Cholera in Sandgate 1854’ (reference code 614.514
LOCAL). Make some notes on what you can learn from the illustration
about the impact of a cholera outbreak on the local community.
Use these notes to write a short
diary entry on the experience of a
local person during the 1854
outbreak. How do you feel? Have
your family or friends caught the
disease? How many have died?
What is being done to control the
spread of disease, if anything?
Task Two:
Task Two:
In the late nineteenth century, the French government gave Louis Pasteur
generous funding for his research into the cause of
disease. This not only shows how important his work
was but also reflects the fact that they wanted
Pasteur to do better than their enemies, the
Produce a song or a rap that charts the development of public health
from the start of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century to
the introduction of the NHS in 1948… and even beyond!
Using the internet, research the ways in which the two countries were in
competition with each other.
Refer in your answer to the different methods each
scientist used to study germs and the international
context of their rivalry with brief details of the
Franco-Prussian War.
You can include the work of Edwin Chadwick and
John Snow, the 1875 Public Health Act, the 1911
National Insurance Act and the role of Nye
Choose whether to sing your song on your own
or teach it to a group in your class to perform
Public Health and Disease
The Importance of the Individual
Task One:
Task One:
Imagine you have been asked to write an audio guide or pod cast describing
a visit to London in the 1800s. Explain what you see and list all of the things
that are a potential risk to public health.
Use the website to look into the history of the Cavell van, which played an
important part in medical history during the First World War.
Refer to sanitation, water
supplies, crowding, street
cleanliness and suggest ways
these could be improved.
Make a poster on the van and the three people connected to it, the nurse
Edith Cavell, Captain Charles Fryatt and the Unknown Warrior. Become
the teacher in your lesson and give a presentation to your class on what you
have learnt and produce a fact sheet that contains additional information
from the poster.
Write a short minute long
commentary of your visit and
print out the transcript.
Task Two:
Task Two:
Study this cartoon of a cholera patient experimenting with remedies for the
disease (a bigger picture can be found
Annotate the drawing with all the
information you can get from it.
-what you can learn from the cartoon
-why it might not be reliable
- the role of public health in the fight
against cholera (positive? negative?)
-who the author is and what his
reasons might have been for
producing this drawing
In 1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey shared the
Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for their role in the development
and mass production of penicillin which saved millions of lives during the
course of the Second World War.
However, another member of the team- Norman Heatley- was the one who
devised a way of purifying this very unstable
substance yet did not receive any recognition.
Investigate his work and make a judgement on
the importance of his contribution. Write a letter
to the Nobel organisation either saying why you
think they made the right choice or argue the
case for Norman Heatley’s claim to a Nobel Prize.
Developments in Surgery
Medical Pioneers
Task One:
Task One:
James Simpson’s discovery of the anaesthetic chloroform in 1847 was only
possible because he was willing to experiment on himself.
Read through the list of Nobel Prizes winners of
Physiology and Medicine on the Nobel Prize
cine/laureates/). Chose one person from the list
and use the internet to research them. What
did they win a Nobel Prize for? Did they share
the award with anyone else? Is their discovery still important today?
The story of Simpson using
himself as his own ‘guinea pig’,
however, is by no way the only
one in the history of medicine.
Read the chapter on the role
of self-experimentation in the
development of anaesthesia
and make a list of the reasons
why some doctors risked their own health, and lives, in this way.
Task Two:
Many advances in surgery and anatomy have been made possible by the
outbreak of war throughout the history of medicine and health.
Research the ways in which the First World War provided opportunities for
the development of surgery and choose one topic to create a fact sheet.
Choose from:
Blood transfusion
Artificial limbs
Facial reconstruction
Which area of surgery do you think
benefitted most from wartime advances?
Did any areas suffer setbacks due to the
Produce a presentation for your class on your chosen winner explaining what
you have learnt and whether you think they were deserving of the award.
Task Two:
Design your own Top Trumps cards for the medical pioneers of modern
medicine. Choose at least six people who you think have had a great impact
on medicine and make a fact file on them. You can use the following points
and rank each one from 1 (least important) to 10 (most important):
Details of their work (was it a new discovery or a
development of someone else’s?)
Number of lives saved
Method used (scientific?)
Impact of development on other
doctors (did it inspire other discoveries?)
Durability (has the discovery stood the test of time?)
Make a judgement on which person is most important in the development of
medicine and explain why.