Tips for answering the revision questions: Chapter 15, The Psychology of Addictive Behaviour (A2 Level Psychology page 647) Question 1 a) This question is really asking you what the point is of empirical research. What are the problems with anecdotal stories? So, you need to explain the importance of replication, validation, and peer reviewing, and how reliable a mass of empirical research is compared with personal stories, especially when committing to a costly health programme. b) Firstly, explain the basis of the cognitive model in terms of information processing. Then focus on the maladaptive (i.e. erroneous or irrational beliefs) which underpin addictive behaviour in the cognitive model. You could give examples of the heuristics and maladaptive beliefs which could cause the initiation and maintenance of, and relapse back into, addictive behaviours, using research studies to support your arguments. c) “Individual differences” is a key concept in psychology, and here you can explain individual factors such as genetic background, other biological factors, differences in self esteem, attributional style, cognitions, “addictive personality”, family and social context, and the current personal situation (e.g. current level of stress, financial difficulties). Wherever possible, include some research studies or reference to relevant psychological approaches. Question 2 a) The term “include” means you must discuss these two theories. Therefore you need an outline description and explanation of each, with its theoretical base, and the research studies which may support or challenge it. You can, of course, add in an extra theory if you have time, and treat/discuss it in the same way. b) Here you are given some suggestions, and you can pick from the list or choose others that are not mentioned. However, as you are asked to deal with types (plural) of intervention, you need at least two types. You should think about relating this to the “two-pronged approach” in the introductory sentence. You need to describe and explain each treatment type, pointing out the complex nature of addiction and therefore the complex combination of likely helpful treatments, as well as the evaluation from, for example, WHO. Question 3 You have a wide choice here for your two models. There are the biological, cognitive, and learning models, but there are also the personal factors model, and the biopsychosocial model. Briefly describe your chosen models, explain them clearly, what theory they are based on, and how valid this is when applied to smoking/gambling addiction. Then explain how they relate to the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of the addiction, and assess the validity of this explanation. What studies have been done that support and which studies challenge this explanation? Elaborate on how they support, how they challenge, and the reasons for this. Compare these explanations with alternative ones.