Chapter 24 Study Guide Answers Digestive System: a group of organs that work together to help break down food into nutrients Stomach: breaks down food into a soupy mixture called chyme; contains acids that kill most of the bacteria that is swallowed with food Small Intestine: absorbs nutrients from food (chyme) into the bloodstream using villi Gallbladder: stores bile (breaks down fat) Urinary System: contains organs that remove wastes from blood Nephron: microscopic filters in kidneys that remove wastes from blood Esophagus: moves swallowed food from the mouth to the stomach Pancreas: creates a digestive juice that helps neutralize and protect the small intestine from acid in the chyme Liver: stores nutrients, breaks down toxins and makes bile to break up fat Large Intestine: absorbs water and stores waste Kidney: filters water and wastes from the blood and excretes wastes as urine 1. Mechanical digestion is the crushing and mashing of food (chewing food with the teeth). Chemical digestion is when large molecules of food are broke down into nutrients. 2. Large intestine 3. Break down toxins, store nutrients and makes bile to break up fat 4. Carbon dioxide and ammonia 5. They are tiny filters in the kidneys, removes urea from blood and produce urine. 6. Protein 7. Saliva contains enzymes that help break down carbohydrates into simple sugars (chemical digestion). It also helps moisten food, which makes it easier to swallow. 8. The stomach contains acid and enzymes that are strong enough to break down food. The stomach also squeezes food with strong muscle contractions. 9. Kidney stones happen when salt and wastes collect inside the kidneys and can interfere with the flow of urine. Bacterial infections can happen in the bladder and ureters. They can spread to kidneys and cause permanent damage. Kidney disease is when the kidneys are not functioning normally and the wastes in the body cannot be properly removed. 10. Diuretics, like caffeine, cause the body to produce more urine. This decreases the amount of water in the blood stream.