Chapter 12

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AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
ROOTS & REFORM
CHAPTER 12
(Revised 7/8/2011)
Learning Objectives
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In general, after you finish reading and studying this chapter, you should
understand the following:
the purposes served by elections, particularly their importance in
legitimizing the political system
different kinds of elections from primaries and caucuses to congressional
and presidential elections
how presidential elections work
how congressional elections work and how they differ from presidential
elections
how voters behave
voter turnout and whether America's low levels are a problem
CHAPTER 12 STUDY GUIDE (Know these things)
Democrat's paradise - Lecture
Primary Election – 360, 355, 342
Closed primaries – 360, 355, lecture
Open primaries – 360, 355, lecture
Runoff primaries - 360 , 356, lecture
General election – 360, 356, 343
Initiative – 361, 356, lecture
Referendum – 361, 356, lecture
Recall – 362, 356, lecture
Presidential elections – 362, 356, 356
Front-loading – 364, 358, 355
General election campaign – 365, 359, 343
Campaign manager – 366, 361, 345
Media consultant – 367, lecture, 352
Pollster – 366, 361, 346
Voter canvass – 366, 361, 346
get out the vote (GOTV) – 366, 361, 346
Turnout – 352, 347, 364
Page numbers by Edition (2008, 2009, 2011)
Not in text, in Power Point or Lecture
Paid media – 375, 367, lecture
Free media – 375, 368, lecture
Contribution limits – 377, 376, 349
Positive ad – 374, 367, 354
Negative ad – 374, 367, 354
Inoculation advertising – 374, 368, 354
Electoral College – 367, 361, 356
Electors – 367, 361, 356
Party realignment - Ch.11-322, Ch. 11- 320, Ch. 11314
Critical election - Ch. 11- 322 , Ch. 11- 320, Ch. 11314
Secular realignment - Ch. 11- 322, Ch. 11- 320, Ch.
11-314
Incumbency advantage – 371364, 359
Redistricting – 371, 364, 360
Gerrymandering – 371, 364, Ch. 6-173
Midterm elections – 372, 365, 361
Public funds – 379, 378, 350
Matching funds – 379, 378, 350
Individual contributions – 377, 376, 349
Hard money - Lecture, lecture, 347
Soft money – 380, 379, 347
Key terms – 386, 381, 372
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