WHI Midterm Study Guide KEY Unit 1: Beginnings of Civilization

WHI Midterm Study Guide KEY
Unit 1: Beginnings of Civilization
1. What is Prehistory? The time before written history
2. What is the correct sequence of the Stone Ages? (1) Paleolithic (2) Mesolithic (3) Neolithic
3. What is a Hunter Gatherer? People who move and find or hunt for food
4. What was Homo Habilis known for? Using Stone Tools
5. Describe a Neanderthal: Usually accepted as subset of Homo Sapiens, Remains discovered in 1850s in
the Neander Valley, Germany, stocky bodies with thick bones, necks, and wide shoulders.
6. What was the Neolithic Revolution? An agriculture revolution, people started farming
7. Which major Neolithic city currently under excavation is located in modern day Turkey? Catalhoyuk
8. What is Stonehenge? (What does it look like?) A Neolithic structure located in England. It is made of
large stones in a circle of arches.
Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations
9. What was Hammurabi known for? His code of law
10. What was Cuneiform, who developed it? The first form or writing, Sumerians
11. What is Polytheism? Belief in many Gods
12. What is Monotheism? Belief in one God
13. What is the Rosetta Stone? Why was it important? A stone slab with a decree written in Egyptian
Hieroglyphics and two types of Greek. It allowed historians to decode Egyptian hieroglyphics for the
first time.
14. Why was the Nile River important? Provided water, fertile soil and transportation
15. What does Mesopotamia mean? Land between the rivers
16. What is the Fertile Crescent? Arc of land with fertile soil
17. What is an Empire? A single political unit or state with one leader
18. What is a city-state? A large city that is self-sufficient and self-governed
19. Founder and sacred text of Judaism? Abraham, Torah
20. Who led the Jews out of slavery in Egypt? Moses
21. Who created the world’s first alphabet? The Phoenecians
Unit 3: Early Asian Civilizations
22. What were the first two major cities of the Indian Civilization? Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
23. What were the mountains that separated India from the rest of Asia and what was the pass that became
the migration and invasion route? Hindu-Kush and Himalayas. Khyber Pass
24. What were the major rivers in the Indus Valley Region? Indus and Ganges
25. Describe the following aspects of Hinduism:
a. Reincarnation – The cycle of moving forwards or backwards in a cycle of life, death, and rebirth
b. Karma – all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
c. Vedas & Upanishads – sacred texts of Hinduism
26. What are the sacred beliefs of Buddhism and what do they talk about? The Four Noble Truths and the
Eight Fold Path. Living good lives and giving up the desire for material goods to reach nirvana.
27. Who was the founder of Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama
28. Who started the Hindu Caste System and what were the levels? The Aryans
a. Brahmin (priests)
b. Kshatriyas (warriors/gov officals)
c. Vaishyas (skilled)
d. Sudras (unskilled)
e. Pariahs (untouchables)
29. What is a Dynasty? A kingdom or empire ruled by people of the same family
30. What is a Mandate of Heaven? The power given to Chinese rulers by the gods to rule as long as they
were fair and just rulers.
31. What are the beliefs of Confucianism? People are good and follow logic. Virtues of Respect, Justice,
Politeness, Knowledge, Honesty. Lead by example
32. What were the accomplishments of China? Paper, Porcelain, Silk, Fireworks
33. What was the Silk Road? A network of trade routes that crossed Asia to Europe where many goods,
ideas, cultures and diseases would travel.
34. What was Qin Shi Huangdi known for? Unifying China, rebuilding the Great Wall, building the
Terracotta Army, give China a standard language, currency.
35. What is important about the Yellow River? Cradle of Chinese Civilization. Also flooding.
36. What was Persia most known for? Bureaucracy, tolerance
Unit 4: Ancient Greece
37. How did mountains effect the development of the Ancient Greeks? Separated them so they developed
differently. Poor farm soil so they had to colonize new land/trading
38. What is Mythology? Stories used to explain events or things people don’t understand
a. Zeus – lightning, king of the gods
b. Hera – marriage, queen of the gods
c. Aphrodite – love & beauty
d. Apollo – the sun & music
e. Athena - wisdom
39. Who was Homer and what were his stories about? – Blind Poet, Iliad about the Trojan war, Odyssey
about Odysseus trying to get home
40. What is a city state? City and the territory around it, self sufficient, own gov and army
41. How did the city states form? Mountains separated them so they formed independently, colonies
eventually became city states
42. What was the…
a. Polis - Greek word for city
b. Acropolis - cities built on hills for defense
c. Agora - open air market for socializing and public discussion
43. Define the following government types:
a. Monarchy – One ruler, not always elected
b. Aristocracy – Small group of rich landowners
c. Oligarchy - Small group of rulers
d. Tyranny – One ruler backed by the military
e. Democracy – Rule by the many
44. Who could vote and be an Athenian citizen? Free Landowning Males
45. Why type of government and city was Sparta? Oligarchy, slave owning and military based
46. What happened at the Battle of Marathon? Smaller Greek citizen army defeated the professional Persian
47. What happened at Thermopylae? 300 Spartans held a small pass that made the larger Persian army
ineffective while the rest of Greece raised an army
48. What happened at Salamis? The smaller Greek navy beat the larger Persian navy by luring them into a
narrow strait just like Thermopylae
49. Who was Herodotus? Wrote the first history book about the Persian wars
50. What was the Golden Age of Athens? Best City state, democracy and growing economy
51. Who was Pericles? Tyrant but rebuilt Athens and the Acropolis, created the Delian League
52. What were the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues?
a. Delian – Athens and allies – defensive alliance but they got too powerful.
b. Peloponnesian – Sparta and allies, angry an Athens, tricked into attacking.
53. What are the three types of columns and what did they look like? Doric – Oldest, very simple. Ionic –
more elaborate, curls. Corinthian – very elaborate
54. Who were Archimedes, Hippocrates, Pythagoras and Euclid? Greek scientists and mathematicians who
helped develop medicine, and mathematics
55. What is Philosophy? Questioning and answering what and why
a. Who was Socrates? Athenian, founder of philosophy and the Socratic Method – start with a
question and experiment to find answers
b. Who was Plato? Student of Socrates, taught at the Academy, dealt with how governments should
c. Who was Aristotle? Student of Plato, studied many things because he believed all students
should be well rounded. Taught Alexander the Great
56. What is the Parthenon? (What does it look like?) A temple to Athena built on the Acropolis in Athens.
Designed by Phidias during the Golden Age. Columns.
57. Who was Alexander the Great and what were his accomplishments? Son of Philip II and a military
genius. Wanted to combine Europe and Asia in an Empire. Invaded and conquered Persia, Phoenicia,
Egypt and India in under 10 years
58. What is Hellenistic Culture? Combined the best of all cultural influences.
Unit 5: Roman Republic
59. Mountains of Rome – Alps
60. Mythology
a. Jupiter – lightning, king (just like the Greek Zeus)
b. Juno – marriage, queen (just like the Greek Hera)
c. Venus – love & beauty (just like the Greek Aphrodite)
d. Minerva – wisdom (just like the Greek Athena)
61. First group of people in Italy around the Tiber River – Latins
62. Plebeians – Poor people of Rome
63. Patricians – Wealthy Roman Landowners
64. Twelve Tables – Twelve laws for Plebeians that cannot be taken away
65. Senate – most powerful body of government, 300 patrician men, made the laws, budget, and foreign
66. Results of the Punic Wars – Carthage destroyed, Rome gained new land and control of the
Mediterranean Basin (including North Africa, Hellenistic Mediterranean, southern Europe)
67. Julius Caesar and his accomplishments – General who took control of Rome. Granted citizenship, Julian
calendar and forced the Senate to elect him
1. North America
2. South America
1. Fertile Crescent
2. Mesopotamia
3. Euphrates
8. Arctic Ocean
9. Atlantic Ocean
10. Pacific Ocean
11. Indian Ocean
12. Southern Ocean (not on exam)
4. Tigris
5. Nile
6. Babylon
A. Crete (not on exam)
B. Peloponnesus
A. Hindu Kush
B. Himalaya
C. Khyber Pass
D. Deccan Plateau (not on exam)
E. Indus River
F. Ganges River
C. Greece (Balkan Peninsula)
D. Aegean