Name: Mods: Date: Short Stories Applied Notes Story Title

Name: _______________________________________ Mods:______________ Date:_______________
Short Stories Applied Notes
Story Title:___KEY______________________________ Author:______________________________
GENRE – type of literature
Short story – fictional, prose narrative of 12,000 words or less
fictional – not true
prose – told in sentences & paragraphs
narrative – story
I.PLOT – sequence of events
A. Plotline
Exposition – introduces setting and characters
Complication – the first problem is revealed
Rising Action – additional problems & events
Climax – most interesting or exciting part of the story
Denoument (Falling Action/Resolution) – events after the climax
B. Plot related terms & concepts
Reconstructed Past – events from before the story began that are necessary for reader’s understanding
Flashback – plot sequence that has gone back in time
Foreshadowing – hint of what is yet to happen
Epiphany – sudden realization of important issue
Turning point – (self explanatory)
Projected future – events likely to happen after story’s end
C. Conflict
Character vs. Character
Character vs. Nature
Character vs. Society
Character vs. Self
A. Character terms
protagonist – character we want to succeed; major force in the story
antagonist – character who goes against the protagonist
flat – one-dimensional character; may be a stereotype
round – multi-sided, complex character
dynamic – character who changes over the course of the story
static – character who remains the same throughout the story
foil – 2 characters who are opposites. The author uses one to highlight traits of the other.
B. Characterization
Direct – narrator tells the characteristics
Indirect – reader surmises the characteristics from the story’s events and dialogue
List main characters. Identify major traits.
“I” Narrator is a character.
Narrator knows all.
IV. POINT OF VIEW _____ 1st Person
_____ 3rd Person Limited
_____ 3rd Person Omniscient
Narrator sees only what one character sees.
Literary devices
Simile – comparison using “like” or “as”
Metaphor – comparison not using “like” or “as”
Imagery – author creates a vivid picture in reader’s mind; sensory words
Irony – the unexpected happens, or a significant coincidence occurs
Allusion – a reference to another major or classic literary work
Personification – assigning human qualities to non-living things
Symbolism – using an object to signify something abstract, such as an idea
Alliteration – repetition of initial consonant sounds
Onomatopoeia – words or phrases that have the sounds that they name
Hyperbole – using exaggeration to explain or state an extreme degree
Symbol –
Established – a symbol which is universally recognized in a given culture or subculture
Created – a symbol which the author creates for the purpose of this particular story