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Embedded Based Multipara Health Care Monitoring
System.
Pawankumar M. Dhande#1, Harish K.Bhangale*2
Digital Electronics Department, North Maharashtra University
Jalgaon , India
1
[email protected]
[email protected]
2
Abstract— In society, there are increasing number of people
whose health requires frequent health check up or examination.
People, who passed or suffer from specific diseases, the
subsequences of which can occur unexpectedly and result in
critical health situation, represent the other group. The solution
for this is continuous remote monitoring of certain patient’s
functions important for their life with the help needed by
providing it. Under remote monitoring the sensing of important
data related to person’s health wherever they are can be
transmitted into technological centre where they will be
evaluated and understood. The applicability of this idea has a
great potential. In addition to above group this can also be a
question of active or recreation sportsmen, rescuers or various
special units where it is necessary to know the basic health
parameters of a person this paper considers non-invasive sensors
for monitoring of some physiologic parameters, data transport
and their processing, archiving and visualization at supervising
place using computing equipment (desktop PC, notebook).This
methodology was a basis for successive applied research projects
that were developed in cooperation with hospitals.
calculated by means of computer . The embedded measuring
and managing systems represent an important integral part for
development of such systems, which are placed directly on
their bodies sensing the necessary patient’s data. In
application of measuring and control systems in medical
systems in medical diagnostics we always face the problems
of signal processing.
II. HARDWARE
There are two systems developed for data measuring:
a) The KARD is a system for exercise testing which is used in
laboratory.
b) The TELEKARD is a telemetric portable exercise testing
system that allow to monitor cardio respiratory function in
laboratory as well as in field (sport medicine, rehabilitation
etc).
For data evaluating, the program KONSIL was developed.
The program is same for both systems.
Keywords - Telekard System, Remote monitoring, Zigbee
technology
I. INTRODUCTION
Physical exercise testing requires the interaction of
physiologic mechanism which enable the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems to support the increased energy demands
of contracting muscles. Both systems are consequently
stressed during exercise. Their ability to respond adequately to
this stress is a measure of their physical competence (or
“health”).
An appreciation to the normal response profiles of the gas
transport systems that support cell respiration is essential to
recognize the abnormal response patterns that characterize the
many disease states that affect them. The increased metabolic
rate during exercise requires an appropriate increase in O 2 the
muscles. Simultaneously, the CO2 produced by muscles must
be removed to avoid severe tissue acidosis with its adverse
effects on cellular function. This involves the lungs, the
pulmonary circulation, the heart, and the peripheral
circulation. Heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and breathing
frequency are non-invasively measured in patient’s breadth.
From these data, many of other standard parameters are
Fig.1.The laboratory KARD system for stress test
The KARD system is used for laboratory testing which is
based on microcontroller. This system is based on AVR
Atmel16 microcontroller. If needed ECG can be connected for
heart rate measuring. The KARD system was designed to use
different types of old gas analyzers (Spirolyt or Infralyt) , but
new type of gas analyzers can also be used. The gas-meter
with digital serial output was used for ventilation measuring.
The heart rate meter SPORTTESTER is used for heart rate
measuring and information is transmitted.
In Figure 2, the block diagram of the TELEKARD system is
drawn. This is a “wireless” device (telemetric system). The
equipment is composed of a unit (carried by object) which
transmits the measured data to a receiver in area time. The
receiver is connected to personal computer (PC) which shows
the information on the following devices is used for
TELEKARD system:-
heart beat. The digital output can be connected to
microcontroller directly to measure the Beats per minute
(BPM) rate. It works on principle of light modulation by
blood flow through finger at each pulse.
SENSOR CO2:
SENSOR O2:
a) %O2 Expiratory- Oxygen sensor, range 0 to 100%.
b) %CO2 Expiratory-Infrared carbon dioxide sensor, 0-10%.
c) Heart pulse-Heart rate sensor or heart rate meter
SPORTMETER is used.
d) Flow-turbine flow meter, 26mm, VE range 10-250 1/min.
e) Pressure Sensor-differential dual ports integrated silicon
pressure sensor on chip signal conditioned, temperature
compensated and calibrated MPX5010 is used.
f) Temperature sensor-LM 35 can be used as temperature
sensor for measurement of temperature.
B) MICROCONTROLLER:
This is a high performance, low power AVR 8-bit
microcontroller. It has non volatile program and data
memories. It has 135 instruction and these mostly require
single clock for execution so the time required for execution
of data is far less than other microcontrollers.
C) ZIGBEE MODULE:
RF Module Operation:
Serial Communications:-The Xbee/Xbee-PRO OEM RF
modules interface to host device through logic-level
asynchronous serial port. Through its serial port, the module
can communicate with any logic and voltage compatible
UART, or through a level translator to any serial device (For
example through RS-232 or USB interface board)[9].
D) UART DATA FLOW
Devices that have UART interface can directly connect to pins
of RF-module as shown below
Figure 2.TELEKARD System
The TELEKARD system is used. The wireless data is used.
The signals (a to f) are processed in AVR Atmel16
microcontroller is used and transmitted to a Zigbee RF
module (Tarang F4) ,where they are elaborated and presented
to the user using PC
Figure.4. System Data-Flow in UART-interfaced Environment.
E) SERIAL DATA:
Data enters the module UART through the DI pin (pin-3)
as an asynchronous serial signal. The signal should be idle
high when no data is being transmitted.
Each data byte consist of a start bit(low), 8-data bits(least
significant bit) and stop bit (high). The following figure
illustrates the serial bit pattern of data passing through the
module.
Figure.3.Block Diagram of Telekard System
A) HEART RATE SENSOR:
Heart beat sensor is designed to give digital output of
heart beat when a finger is placed on it. When the heart beat
detector is working, the beat LED flashes in unison with each
Figure 5.UART data packets as transmitted through RF-module
The module UART performs tasks, such as timing and
parity checking, that are needed for data communication.
Serial communication depends on two UART’s to be
configured with compatible settings (baud rates, parity, start
bit, stop bit, data bits).
III. LIST OF MEASURED AND CALCULATED DATA:
During the exercise testing the KARD or TELEKARD
acquires the following main signals:
Heart frequency, Flow, %O2 Expiratory, %CO2 Expiratory.
From these signals, the standard parameters are calculated by
the program are the following:
Table 1. The Standard Parameters
IV. RESULT
The system’s non-invasive nature and ease of use makes
it ideally suited for clinical situations where monitoring of
cardiovascular and ventilatory systems responses under
conditions of precisely controlled stress is desirable. Exercise
testing with appropriate gas exchange measurements can also
serve to grade the adequacy of cardio respiratory function and
benefit from the convenience of this simple, inexpensive test.
From the measured data, many of other parameters are
calculated by means of computer.
V. CONCLUSION
The embedded system for some physiologic data during
physical activities was presented. A properly administered
exercise test allows the objective and quantitative assessment
of the patient’s performance, reserves and limits that are
necessary to make a correct differential diagnosis and institute
appropriate therapy. The programs and systems for automatic
stress testing have been developed in cooperation with doctors
for more than 15 years and now are used in approx.20
hospitals in Czech Republic.
VI. REFERENCES
1] Heart Rate Monitoring and Exercise, Journal of Sport Sciences, Vol.16,
summer 1998, ISSN 0264-0414
2] M. Stork, ” The System for Spiroergometric Data Measuring and
Evaluation, in Proceedings of measurement 2001”,ISBN 80-967402-5-3,
EAN 9788096740253,2001, pp.305-308.
3] M. Stork, ”Hardware and software for Spiroergometric Examination”,
Medicina sportive Bohemica & Slovaca, ISSN 1210-548, Vol.10, No.2,
2001.
4] Microcontroller Atmel16 data sheet
http://www.engineersgarage.com/sites/default/files/Atmega16.pdf
5] R.S.Khandpur,(2003).Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation, Tata
McGraw Hill Education, pg no.
6] Zigbee datasheet available: http://www.melangesystems.com
/Pdfs/Tarang.pdf7] Zigbee Alliance Available: http://www.zigbee.org/
8] Heart rate Sensor http Available:http://pulsesensor.com/category/thelong-blurb/diy-monitors-the-long-blurb/
9]XgbeePRO-RF-Modulehttp://www.digi.com/products/wireless-wiredembedded-solutions/zigbee-rfmodules/point-multipoint-rfmodules/xbeeseries1-module#overview
10]XBee Pro 802.15.4 OEM RF module datasheet Available:
http://www.picaxe.com/docs/xbe001.pdf
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