Unit 2 Exam – Microbial Metabolism

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Unit 2 Exam – Microbial Metabolism
Organism
Photoautotroph
Carbon Source
REVIEW
Energy Source
Photoheterotroph
Chemoautotroph
Chemoheterotroph
1. Explain how an organism would completely oxidize glucose? How much ATP would be produced at each step?
2. Draw a typical bacterial growth curve. Label and define each of the four phases.
3. Macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) are often listed as CHONPS. What does each of these
letters stand for, and why are they needed by the cell?
4. List and describe two direct and two indirect methods of measuring microbial growth.
5. A chef accidentally inoculated a pie with 15 bacterial cells. After 14 hours how many cells would be present if
the doubling time is 45 minutes?
6. Explain why transcription and translation can occur simultaneously in prokaryotes, but must be separate in
eukaryotes.
7. Define:
a. Genotype
b. Phenotype
c. Recombination
8. Why are mutation and recombination important in the processes of natural selection and evolution?
9. List and explain three examples of genetic engineering used in medicine or agriculture.
10. Fill in the diagram below. Use ATAT as the promoter sequence.
Position
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13
DNA
A T A T
T G
A
mRNA
C
U G
tRNA
Amino Acid
gly
14 15 16
U
U
C
A
11. Use the table above to answer the following questions:
a. What would be the effect if C was substituted for T at base 10?
b. What would be the effect if C was inserted between bases 9 and 10?
12. Plasmids differ from transposons because plasmids:
13. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by:
14. The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage is called:
15. The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell as naked DNA is called:
16. Which of the cellular processes do not generate ATP?
17. Which compound has the greatest amount of energy for a cell?
18. What is the best definition of the Krebs Cycle?
19. What is the best definition of respiration?
20. The term trace elements refers to:
17 18 19
G
A
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