Chapter 3: The Dynamic Earth Name: _______________________ Earth is divided into 4 parts 1. 2. 3. 4. How are seismic waves used to detect the interior of the earth? Composition of Earth 1. 2. 3. Structure of the Earth 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Compositional Layers Structural Layers PLATE TECTONICS Tectonic plates: How are mountains formed? EARTHQUAKES Fault: What causes earthquakes? Magnitude: Largest felt= Smallest felt= Where do earthquakes usually occur? VOLCANOES How are volcanoes formed? Local Effects: Global Effects: EROSION Water Erosion Wind Erosion 3-2 Atmosphere Composition of the Atmosphere 78% = 21% = 1% = How does air pressure change the density of air in different altitudes? LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE 1. 2. 3. 4. How are the layers determined? Which layer do planes fly? What is the Aurora Borealis? FORMS OF ENERGY FROM THE SUN Radiation: Conduction: Convection: How does convection energy create a current? Greenhouse Effect: What are the greenhouse gases? CLIMATE weather: climate: FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CLIMATE 1. 6. 2. 7. 3. 8. 4. 9. 5. The Ozone Shield ozone layer: located in the _______________ What is the main function of the ozone layer? OZONE DEPLETION CFC’s (chloroflurocarbons): Sources: How long does it take for them to rise into the stratosphere? Each CFC molecule contains _______________ atoms of chlorine 1 chlorine atom can destroy _____________ozone molecules OZONE HOLE 1985 Nature: ozone at the South Pole thinned by 50-98% - first signs of thinning in 1979 - ozone is considered a pollutant on the ground, but will react with other substances before reaching the stratosphere EFFECTS ON HUMANS What are some of the effects of a thinning ozone layer on humans? EFFECTS ON ANIMALS AND PLANTS What are some of the effects of a thinning ozone layer on other organisms? PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER 1987 Montreal Protocol Nations agreed to sharply limit CFCs 1992 Copenhagen, Denmark - eliminate CFC’s by 1995 - US to ban all damaging substances by 2000 - help developing countries - other substances banned (13.3) Global Warming greenhouse effect: greenhouse gases: Charles Keeling (1958) - measured carbon dioxide levels in Mauna Loa, Hawaii - far from forests and human activity so he thought that the average levels could be measured for the entire Earth - normal fluctuations during different seasons - 1958 = 314 parts per million (0.0314%) - 1994 = 358 parts per million Extra Carbon Dioxide - plants contain carbon; after millions of years, become coal, oil or natural gas - burning of fossil fuels release CO2 - burning of forests also release CO2, then there are less trees to take the CO2 out of the air GLOBAL WARMING: CONSEQUENCES OF WARMING Natural climate changes happen, like ice ages, but happen over hundreds or thousands of years Melting Ice and Sea Levels Weather Patterns Human Health Problems Agriculture Animals What can be done to slow global warming? What is the Kyoto Protocol? How much carbon dioxide do you send into the atmosphere? 1 gallon gasoline = 9kg 1 kW hour electricity = 1 kg 100 cubic feet natural gas = 5.5 kg carbon 3-3 Hydrosphere and Biosphere What is the hydrosphere? WATER CYCLE 1. 2. 3. OCEANS Which ocean is the largest? Pacific: Atlantic: Indian: Arctic: OCEAN WATER What is the composition of ocean water? How are ocean currents determined? FRESHWATER Where is most of Earth’s fresh water? How do river systems work? GROUNDWATER What is groundwater used for? Where is it stored? BIOSPHERE What is the biosphere? What makes life possible? How does energy flow within the biosphere?