Initiative on Climate Change Climate change means the variation in a long term change on the earth’s global climate, weather patterns or in regional climate over time. Climate change is a global problem, and yet each one of us has the power to make a difference. Even small changes in our daily behavior can help prevent greenhouse gas emissions. The earth’s atmosphere traps heat from the sun’s rays before it escapes back into space. This process is known as the “green house effect” which enables planet earth to have a climate that sustains life. In the late 1980’s scientist where already expressing concern on the earth’s climate which was changing in an unparalleled manner. These scientist described this change to the excessive use of fossil fuels by human begins to generate energy because this meant that vast amounts of gases, such as carbon dioxide, which were being released into the atmosphere. Scientific evidence shows that these gases are commonly referred to as greenhouse gases, which are changing the way the atmosphere absorbs the sun’s energy. They are already present in the earth’s atmosphere but as there emission in excessive amounts is increasing their concentration, which is interfere with the green house effect and causing global warming. Furthermore the problem was becoming more and more serious. Scientist admitted that it’s not easy to predict the effects of climate change as a result of global warming. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of earths near surface air and oceans. Some people think that the warming is because of people burning fossil fuels like coal and oil. Some also think that humans are cutting down too many trees. Most scientists believe that the sun actually became colder and is not to blame. If this is so, the Earth should be a small amount colder. Many scientists say that the temperature will rise about 4°C more in 100 years. Most major governments and science groups agree with these ideas. If the earth's temperature becomes hotter than the sea level will also rise because the temperature rises which will make ice glaciers melt. The sea level rise may cause coastal areas to flood. Weather patterns, including where and how much precipitation (rain) there is, will change. Deserts will increase in size in some areas and decrease in others. Colder areas will become warmer and faster than warm areas. Strong storms may become more likely and farming may not make as much food. These effects will not be the same over the entire Earth. The rose on sea levels is a result of rising temperatures. The world is now warmer than it has been for many thousands of years. The green house effect also causes the ozone layer to have a positive radiative force effect. The ozone layer is a layer of ozone high up in the Earth's atmosphere. This layer can absorb between 93 and 99 percent of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun. This radiation is dangerous to many living organisms on earth. Over the last hundred years the ozone layer has been damaged by man-made chemicals. Humans used spray cans, but also as solvents or as cooling agents in refrigerators. They have been replaced by other substances for most applications. There is now a hole in the layer over Antarctica. This means that there will be more ozone in the atmosphere, and that diseases of the skin which are related to this UV radiation will be more common. Plate tectonics is a theory of geology. It has been developed to explain large scale motions of the Earth's lithosphere (solid shell of the planet earth). This theory builds on older ideas of continental drift and seafloor spreading. Dissipation (lost energy converted into heat) of heat from the mantle is the original source of energy driving plate tectonics. The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate. The size of continents is also important. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland. A larger continent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands. A volcano is a mountain where lava (hot, liquid rock) comes from a magma chamber under the ground. Most active volcanoes have a crater at the top. Materials which poured out from it usually include lava, steam, gaseous compounds of sulphur, ash and broken rock pieces .Volcanoes erupt when magma and pressure come together, and the pressure blasts the magma out of the top. To reduce the change in climate we can make use of the 3 r’s : reduce reuse recycle, turn off the consumption of water and electricity, walk or use a bicycle instead of using a car, a 10-minute shower can use less water than a full bath.