General Ecology Final Exam: Spring 2013 NAME

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General Ecology Final Exam: Spring 2013
NAME:__________________
1.
A functional response is defined as:
a. As prey density increases, each predator can consume more prey
b. As prey density increases, predators increase in number, and that larger number of
predators consumes more prey.
c. As prey density increases, their death rate increases resulting in the loss of predators.
d. As predator density increases, selection for prey increases and prey become more
efficient at reproduction.
2.
T/F
Consider the figure below. This figure illustrates that Sorex had a large
numerical response to increased prey density, while Peromyscus and Blarina had a small
numerical response to increased prey density.
3.
If prey consumption is logistic with respect to prey density, then the functional response is a
a. Type I Functional response
b. Type II Functional response
c. Type III Functional response
4.
T/F
Only the Type III functional response is density dependent in a way that
promotes population regulation.
5.
The Type III functional response is the one most likely to regulate prey populations.
6.
What causes a Type III functional response?
a. Factors that cause low hunting efficiency at low prey density.
b. Failure to develop an appropriate search image without positive reinforcement.
c. Presence of prey refugia at low densities.
d. All of the above.
7.
Perform the phase-plane analysis on the figure below, and indicate whether the system is
stable or not.
8.
T/F
In a co-evolutionary system, an increase in fitness for one species results in a
decrease in fitness for the other species.
9.
Consider the graph below: If predator densities are high, then
a. Evolutionary response on the part of the prey should be low.
b. Evolutionary response on the part of the prey should be high.
c. Evolutionary response on the part of the predator should be low.
d. Evolutionary response on the part of the predator should be high.
10.
Consider a system in which there are two predators. For example, bats might take an insect
when it flies, and shrews may take the insect when it lands on the ground. From an
evolutionary perspective, what problem does this pose?
a. The insect will be easily confused.
b. Insect densities will be too low for a meaningful evolutionary response.
c. The possible evolutionary responses may be constrained by the differing selective
regimes imposed by eachpredator.
d. The level of selection will be to great, and the insect will go extinct locally.
11.
Which of the following is NOT one of our hypotheses for community species diversity?
a. Competition
b. Predation
c. Primary production
d. Global warming
e. Stability of primary production
f. Evolutionary time
g. Ecological time
h. Habitat diversity
i. Climatic stability
12.
T/F
In an ecological sense, predation and herbivory are just different levels of the
same phenomenon. The critical difference is that predation terminates future fecundity
while herbivory generally reduces it.
13.
Adaptations to avoid predation include
a. Hard shells or spines
b. Expanded auditory bullae
c. Poison glands in the skin
d. Saltatorial locomotion
e. Herding behabior
f. Behavioral displays
14.
T/F
15.
If you were standing at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mtns in Southern California, and you
wanted to be in the Ponderosa Pine forest, which direction would you travel?
a. Up in elevation
b. Down in elevation
c. North
d. South
e. Either up in elevation or north.
16.
What determines the distribution of Ponderosa Pine?
a. Temperature and moisture regime.
b. Competition with other pines like the Pinyon Pine and Jeffrey Pine.
c. Predation by bark beetles.
d. Length of the growing season.
Amongst foragers, we can identify two basic types: Time minimizers and energy
maximizers.
17.
Consider the distribution of the giant redwoods. Recall that they grow significantly taller
than any other tree. They are found only in specific locations in the Pacific Northwest.
What factor determines their distribution?
a. Temperature
b. Moisture content of the soil
c. Competition with pine and fir trees.
d. Herbivory on seedlings by deer and elk.
e. Presence of fog.
18.
Consider the equation below:
E
T

1 E1  2 E2
1  1h1  2 h2 
Recall that λ represents encounter rate, h represents handling time, E is calories, and T is
time spent foraging. Imagine a predator has 2 prey items available.
Prey Item 1 Prey Item 2
Calories
10
100
Encounter rate
0.2
.05
Handling time
10
50
Should the predator be a generalist or a specialist?
.
19.
Consider the figure for the marginal value theorem. As travel time between patches
decreases, what should happen to patch residence time?
20.
T/F
As the rate of exploitation by the predator increases, the rate of evolution on
the part of the prey species increases, while the rate of evolution on the part of the
predator decreases.
21.
Communities are evolutionary units
a. True
b. False
c. This has not yet been determined in most cases.
22.
If communities are co-evolved units, then we infer that communities replace each other as
units.
a. True
b. False
c. This has not yet been determined.
23.
Consider the following communities: Ponderosa Pine Woodland, Pinyon Juniper Woodland,
Creosote Scrub, Sage Brush Scrub, Mojave Desert.
d. These are examples of communities as evolutionary units.
e. These are examples of Merriam’s Life Zones
f. These are random assemblages of species
g. These are assemblages of independent species.
24.
Consider the figure below. The top figure indicates _____, while the bottom figure indicates
_____.
h. Co-evolved Communities
i. Random assemblages of species
j. Merriam’s Life Zones.
k. Tolerance limits to the local physiognomy.
25.
Does the sharp demarcation between coniferous and deciduous forest indicate communities
as co-evolved units, or a spatial unit?
a. Co-evolved unit.
b. Spatial unit.
26.
T/F
As you travel north in the Sierra Mts., the elevation at which the Ponderosa Pine
community begins becomes higher and higher.
27.
T/F
The evolutionary history of each species in a community is essentially
independent of other species in the community.
28.
T/F
The distribution of plant species is more strongly correlated with environmental
gradients than with the distribution of other species.
29.
Consider the phase plane given below. Indicate the equilibrium point(s) if it/they
they exist. If an equilibrium point exists, indicate whether it is stable.
30.
31.
Z
T/F
Consider the equation for species richness: S  cA . This equation illustrates a
linear relationship between area and species richness.
T/F
The graph below indicates that as islands get larger, they support more species.
32.
T/F
The distribution of plant species is more strongly correlated with environmental
gradients than with the distribution of other species.
33.
When sampling the species in a community, it is typical that
a. Most species are relatively common, and a few are rare.
b. A few species are relatively common, and many are rare.
c. There is always one common species and the rest are rare.
d. All species are rare.
34.
Consider the graph below. On the graph, indicate (AND LABEL) the equilibrium number of
species for a small island that is far from the mainland, and a large island that is near to the
mainland.
Consider the ANOVA table below. Please answer the following questions using this table.
Dependent Variable: USED
Source
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean Square
F Value
Pr > F
Model
9
43.25062500
4.80562500
5.17
0.0293
Error
6
5.57875000
0.92979167
15
48.82937500
Corrected Total
R-Square
Coeff Var
Root MSE
USED Mean
0.885750
64.01707
0.964257
1.506250
Source
day
seed
conc
DF
Anova SS
Mean Square
F Value
Pr > F
3
3
3
10.14687500
15.14187500
17.96187500
3.38229167
5.04729167
5.98729167
3.64
5.43
6.44
0.0836
0.0381
0.0264
35.
Is the overall model significant?
a. Yes
b. No
36.
How do you know?
37.
What portion of the variation in the ‘seed mass used’ data is explained by the model?
_______
38.
Was there a significant ‘day effect’?
c. Yes
d. No
39.
Was there a significant ‘concentration’ effect?
e. Yes
f. No
40.
Was there a significant ‘seed type’ effect?
g. Yes
h. No
41.
Did the squirrels preferentially use the seed type predicted on the basis of Protein?
i. Yes
j. No
42.
Did the squirrels preferentially use the seed type predicted on the basis of Fat?
k. Yes
l. No
43.
Did the squirrels preferentially use the seed type predicted on the basis of caloric value?
m. Yes
n. No
44.
Did the squirrels preferentially use the seed type predicted on the basis of handling time?
o. Yes
p. No
45.
Did the squirrels behave in a way that was consistent with the marginal value theorem?
q. Yes
r. No
𝑑𝑁
𝑑𝑇
= 𝑟𝑁
𝑑𝑁
𝑑𝑇
𝑁
= 𝑟𝑁 (1 − 𝐾 )
46.
Consider the two models for population growth above. For the model on the left, is there a
limit to how large the population can become (based simply on the model).
a. Yes
b. No
47.
For the model on the right, what happens when N > K?
a. The population grows faster.
b. The population stabilizes.
c. The population size decreases.
d. Population size does not change.
48.
For the model on the right, what happens when N = K?
a. The population grows faster.
b. The population stabilizes.
c. The population size decreases.
d. Population size does not change.
49.
T/F
The model on the right can produce chaotic population growth.
50.
T/F
survival.
The model on the right assumes all age classes have equal fecundity and
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