04-Relationships

advertisement
Relationships Are Complicated!
Where we live and what we do


Habitat: Where an organism lives and all the
resources (biotic and abiotic) it needs to survive
Niche: The species’ role in its environment
 e.g., type of food, predators, ability to reproduce,
habitat needs
 Competition: When organisms attempt to use the
same resource in the same place and time
 Competitive exclusion principle: No two species
can occupy the same niche in the same habitat
at the same time.
What Is Symbiosis?

Symbiosis: a close ecological relationship
between the individuals of two (or more) different
species (sym = together; bio = life)

Competition: Both organisms are harmed

Mutualism: Both organisms benefit




Commensalism: One organism benefits, other is
unaffected
Parasitism: Parasite benefits, host is harmed (but
not killed)
Predation: Predator benefits, prey is killed
Herbivory: Herbivore benefits, plant is harmed or
killed
Competition
http://elementy.ru/images/eltbook/competitive_exclusion_principle_520.jpg
Two
flowering
plants that
compete
for the
same
space
(both are
harmed
due to
energy
expense).
Competition – introduced species
Eastern Bluebird losing numbers
to the House Sparrow, a nonnative species
http://my.core.com/~paper-images/Eastern_Bluebird022v.jpg
http://photogallery.canberrabirds.org.au/images/Sparrow_House_Dabb.jpg
Competition – introduced species
•
Kudzu was introduced to the
•
•
•
United States in 1876 at the
Centennial Exposition in
Philadelphia, PA.
Kudzu “outcompetes” other
native plants so they don’t
have a place to grow.
&imgrefurl=http://www.yahoolavista.com/kudzu/&h=288&w=432&sz=35&hl=en&start=11&tbnid=tp85kKj4SEtsvM:&tbnh=84&tb
nw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dkudzu%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D
Mutualism - Clownfish and Anemone
The anemone protects the clownfish, and the
clownfish keeps the anemone free from dirt and
debris
Clown Fish
http://www.bigfishhooked.com/clown_fish_and_anenome.jpg
Mutualism - Dove and cactus
Cactus provides fruit for the dove; dove eats the fruit
(including the seed) and transports the seed (along a dose
of fertilizer!) to a new location.
Oxpecker and Ox
Oxpecker feeds on ectoparasites of the cattle (such as
ticks) and warns the animals of approaching predators
Mutualism – Caterpillar and ants
Caterpillar feeds the ants with drops of honeydew,
Ant &
ants protect caterpillar from predators
Catepillar Movie
Commensalism - Cattle Egret and
Cattle
Cattle stir up insects, which the egrets eat
Commensalism - Shark and Remora
Remora (attached by a sucker) gets a ride on the shark,
sometimes also gets food dropped by shark
Commensalism – whale and barnacle
The barnacle larvae swim around, attach to the whale, and
form the adult; whale habitat is good location for finding food
Parasitism – Cuckoo & Small
Nesting Birds
Cuckoo lays egg in host’s nest to be
raised by host (and kills host’s eggs)
YouTube:
Cuckoo Bird & Duck
Parasitism - Leeches and Mammals
Leech feeds on blood of mammal host
Parasitism - Tapeworm and Mammal
http://gecko.gc.maricopa.edu
/~lsola/bio182/labreview/plat
yhelminthes/tapeworm.jpg
Tapeworm feeds off digestive tract of
mammal
Predation – Spider and prey insects
In this Predator-Prey
relationship, the
spider is eating an
insect that it has
trapped.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/flashmaggie/50552812/
Predation – Snake and mouse
• The snake is the only one benefiting in this
relationship!
The Ultimate Predator – a Wildcat!
http://www.birdsasart.com/cheetah-w-prey-_T9J1935-Sambura-WR,-Kenya.jpg
Predator/Prey “Arms Race”

Predators and prey are involved in an everescalating evolutionary “arms race”!



e.g., antelope gets faster, so cheetah gets faster
For many populations predation is the main cause
of death.
BUT the prey determines the predator population


When the prey population increases, predator
population increases
When prey population decreases, predator population
decreases
Download
Related flashcards

Water

33 cards

Agriculture

26 cards

Japanese cuisine

27 cards

Agricultural gods

13 cards

Agronomy

25 cards

Create Flashcards