Types of Solutions Start reading at p.284 1. Define Solution Solvent 2. What is the difference between a pure substance like water and a solution like tea? Use the words ‘variable composition’ and ‘ratio’ in your explanation. 3. When a solute dissolves in a solvent, no chemical reaction occurs. Therefore,____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. 4. What process can be used to separate solutions? Explain what this process involves. 5. Two different clear, colourless liquids were gently heated in an evaporating dish. Liquid A left no residue, while liquid B left a white residue. Which liquid was a solution, and which was a pure substance? Explain your answer. 6. A solution can be a gas, a liquid or a solid. Complete the table. Table 8.1: Types of Solutions Solute gas gas gas liquid liquid liquid solid solid solid Solvent Examples 7. Define and give an example of the following. Term Aqueous solution Miscible Immiscible Alloy Solubility Saturated solution Unsaturated solution Definition Example Term Definition Example Soluble Sparingly Soluble Insoluble 8. Potassium bromate is sometimes added to bread dough to make it easier to work with. Suppose that you are given an aqueous solution of potassium bromate. How can you determine if the solution is saturated or unsaturated? 9. Describe a lava lamp using the terms miscible and immiscible. 10. Complete the Tables based on the experiment in the Thought Lab on p.288. Table 1: Thought Lab Solute Iodine Chemical Formula Cobalt(II)chloride Solvent Polar/Non-polar Ionic/Covalent bonds Covalent Non Polar Ionic Polar/Non-polar Water Solutes that Dissolved in this Solvent Cobalt(II)chloride Kerosene oil Iodine Non-polar Polar a) According to the experiment, what type of solutes will dissolve in polar solvents like water? b) What type of solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents like kerosene oil? b) Sugar is a polar molecule. Will it dissolve in water or kerosene oil? c) Propane is a non-polar molecule. Will it dissolve in water or kerosene oil? Thinking Questions 1Food colouring is often added to foods such as candies, ice-cream and icing. Are food colouring dyes more likely to be polar or non-polar molecules? Explain your answer. 2. p.289#11 You are given 3 liquids. One is a pure substance and the second is a solution of 2 miscible liquids. The third is a solution composed of a solid solute dissolved in a liquid solvent. Describe the procedure you would follow to distinguish between the three solutions. 3. p.289#12 The oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck a reef in Alaska. The accident released 40 000 000L of crude oil. The oil eventually covered 26 000 km2 of water. a) Explain why very little of the spilt oil dissolved in water. b) The density of crude oil varies. Assuming a value of 0.86 g/mL, estimate the average thickness of the oil slick that resulted from the disaster.