Page 448-449 (1-20) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Ozone layer Jet streams Atmosphere Radiation Uv radiation C C C A A C D C C B The vast majority of water vapor is found in the troposphere (the layer of the atmosphere closest to the Earth’s surface). The stratosphere has very little water vapor in it, therefore clouds are unlikely to form there. The ozone layer protects life on Earth from harmful UV radiation. Prior to the formation of the ozone layer, life was restricted to water which protected them from the radiation. Sea breezes occur during the day because land heats up faster than water does. Because of this, a low pressure zone develops over the land, where air is rising. The sea breeze moves from the high pressure zone of the water to the lower pressure zone above the land. At night the sea remains warm, so a land breeze occurs. When water vapor rises in the air and cools, condensation occurs. Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid. This process allows for cloud formation. As the altitude increases, the amount of atmosphere above you decreases. Therefore, the atmospheric pressure decreases. Page 86 (2-10) 2. c 3. a 4. a 5. b 6. c 7. d 8. c 9. a 10. b Page 56-57 (1-22) 1. Atoms- small particle of matter made up of atoms, protons, and neutrons. Elements are forms of matter made up of only one type of atom. 2. Mass number- the sum of protons and neutrons in the atom. Atomic number- the number of protons in an element. 3. Solution- homogenous mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout. Heterogenous mixture- a mixture in which substances are not evenly mixed. 4. Matter can be in the form of a compound- more than one element that has been chemically combined. Or it can be in the form of an element- just one type of atom. 5. Heterogenous mixture- a mixture in which substances are not evenly mixed. - Homogenous mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout. 6. Proton- positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of atoms. Neutronsubatomic particle found in the nucleus of atoms without a charge. Electron- negatively charged subatomic particle found in a cloud around the nucleus. 7. Isotope- form of an atom of an element that has different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus. 8. An ion is a form of the atom that has a different number of electrons than protons. This gives the atom a charge. 9. A mixture is composed of substances that can be separated by physical means. Compounds are held together by chemical bonds, and can only be separated using chemical means. 10. The mass number of an element is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. 11. C 12. B 13. A 14. A 15. B 16. C 17. A 18. D 19. D 20. If an atom is neutral, the number of protons and electrons in the atom must be the same. 21. Carbon 14 would have the most number of electrons. Carbon 13 would have 6 protons and 7 electrons. Carbon 14 would have 6 protons and 8 electrons. Nitrogen 14 would have 7 protons and 7 electrons. 22. Isotopes of the same element would have the same number of electrons, but different numbers of neutrons.