Research essay on Pollution and Degradation Grade 10 Environmental Science and Technology Guidelines : Step one: Choose a question that you want to address in your research essay and identify at least five relevant sources that inform you about the topic. Step two: Summarize the key points of each source in a few sentences. Compare the points from the different sources and sort them by topic. Step three: Make an outline of the paper by sorting the different topics in a logical flow. Step four: Write the introduction of your essay, which introduces the question that your essay is addressing and explains all the terms that the reader needs to know in order to be able to understand what your essay is investigating. Example: If your essay addresses the question: "what are the effects of acid rain on the lithosphere?" the introduction needs to explain what acid rain is, how it forms and what the lithosphere is. Step five: Write the main body of your essay. Use the summarized key points of each topic to write one paragraph. Cite the sources you are using. Step six: Sum up your essay in a conclusion paragraph. The conclusion paragraph answers the question that the research essay is addressing in a clear and concise manner. Step seven: Make a list of references in APA format. Information on APA format can be found on this website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Example questions: 1. What is the effect of acid rain on the lithosphere? 2. What is the effect of acid rain on living organisms? 3. What are the main mechanisms contributing to soil depletion (in Canada)? 4. What are the consequences of soil contamination? 5. What are the main mechanisms contributing to the pollution of the hydrosphere? 6. What are the consequences of over-fertilization? Rubric: Category Introduction exceeds expectations 4 points The introduction clearly states the question that the paper is intended to answer and effectively introduces / explains all relevant terms. Body 6 points Paragraph Each paragraph Organization starts with a well-written topic sentence. The information presented within each paragraph is integrated and synthesized from cited sources and relates to the topic of the paragraph (stated in the topic sentence). Research 7-8 points The paragraphs include all of the relevant points that support the paragraph's topic sentence. meets expectations 3 points The introduction is mostly effective. The topic of the paper is named and most relevant terms are introduced. some shortcomings 2 points The essay includes an introduction, but may not include a well-defined question that the paper is intended to answer, or fail to introduce all relevant terms. 4-5 points Each of the paragraphs includes an introductory sentence. Information of cited sources is summarized in a fairly integrated and coherent fashion. 3 points Most paragraphs include an introductory sentence and supporting sentences, but a lack of logical organization within the paragraph is evident. Information is not summarized but only restated from the source. 5-6 points The paragraphs include most of the relevant points that support the paragraph's topic. 3-4 points The paragraphs include few relevant points that support the paragraph's topic. major shortcomings 1 point There is an attempt at an introduction, but a purpose statement or question is absent. Relevant terms are explained insufficiently or not at all. 1-2 points Most paragraphs do not include a topic sentence. Poor organization of some or all paragraphs make for a difficult read. Information presented is either not relevant to the topic or represents a personal opinion. 1-2 points The paragraphs include few to none of the relevant points that support the paragraph's topic. Conclusion 4 points The conclusion clearly and concisely answers the question the paper is investigating. Conventions 4 points Author makes virtually no errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation. Sources and citation 4 points The paper is based on at least five sources, which are consistently cited within the body of the paper and listed in APA format at the end. 3 points The conclusion is stated. It is addressing the question the paper is intending to answer. The essay is adequately summarized. 3 points Author makes few errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation. 2 points There is an attempt at a conclusion. The essay is somewhat summarized up. 3 points The paper is based on at least five sources, which are not consistently cited within the body of the paper or not listed in APA format at the end. 2 points The paper is based on fewer than five sources, which may or may not be consistently cited within the body of the paper and listed in APA format at the end 2 points Author makes some errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation. 1 point There is no reference to the initial question of the paper in the closing paragraph. The essay is not summarized. 1 point Author makes excessive errors in grammar, spelling or punctuation that distract the reader from the content. 1 point Sources are not accurately documented. Intext citations are missing, not relevant or incorrectly cited.