Multimedia is simply multiple forms of media integrated together. Media can be text,
graphics, audio, animation, video, data, etc. An example of multimedia is a web page on
the topic of Mozart that has text regarding the composer along with an audio file of some
of his music and can even include a video of his music being played in a hall.
Besides multiple types of media being integrated with one another, multimedia can also
stand for interactive types of media such as video games CD ROMs that teach a foreign
language, or an information Kiosk at a subway terminal. Other terms that are sometimes
us. Multimedia has become a huge force in American culture, industry and education.
Practically any type of information we receive can be categorized as multimedia, from
television, to magazines, to web pages, to movies, multimedia is a tremendous force in
both informing the American public and entertaining us.
Advertising is perhaps one of the biggest industry's that use multimedia to send their
message to the masses. Where one type of media, let's say radio or text can be a great
way to promote an item, using multimedia techniques can significantly make an item
being advertised better received by the masses and in many cases with greater results.
Output devices: In an industry in which development is so rapid, it is somewhat
surprising that the technology behind monitors and televisions is over a hundred years
old. Whilst confusion surrounds the precise origins of the cathode-ray tube, or CRT, it's
generally agreed that German scientist Karl Ferdinand Braun developed the first
controllable CRT in 1897, when he added alternating voltages to the device to enable it to
send controlled streams of electrons from one end of the tube to the other. However, it
wasn't until the late 1940s that CRTs were used in the first television sets. Although the
CRTs found in modern day monitors have undergone modifications to improve picture
quality, they still follow the same basic principles.
The demise of the CRT monitor as a desktop PC peripheral had been long predicted, and
not without good reason:
they're heavy and bulky
they're power hungry - typically 150W for a 17in monitor
their high-voltage electric field, high- and low frequency magnetic fields and xray
radiation have proven to be harmful to humans in the past
they cannot be used in laptops
the scanning technology they employ makes flickering unavoidable, causing eye
strain and fatigue
their susceptibility to electro-magnetic fields makes them vulnerable in military
their surface is often either spherical or cylindrical, with the result that straight
lines do not appear straight at the edges.
Whilst competing technologies - such as LCDs and PDPs had established themselves in
specialist areas, there are several good reasons to explain why the CRT was able to
maintain its dominance in the PC monitor market into the new millennium
Laser Printer
In the 1980s, dot-matrix and laser printers were pre-dominant, with inkjet technology not
emerging in any significant way until the 1990s. The laser printer was introduced by
Hewlett-Packard in 1984, based on technology developed by Canon. It worked in a
similar way to a photocopier, the difference being the light source. With a photocopier a
page is scanned with a bright light, while with a laser printer the light source is, not
surprisingly, a laser. After that the process is much the same, with the light creating an
electrostatic image of the page onto a charged photoreceptor, which in turn attracts toner
in the shape of an electrostatic charge.
Panel Display The lighter, space saving flat panel monitors offer clear advantages over
CRT monitors.
Digital video
Another mini-revolution within the PC world, home video editing has opened an
unprecedented world of creativity to business and home users into the 21st Century.
A computer keyboard is effectively an array of switches, each of which sends the PC a
unique signal when pressed. Two types of switch are commonly used: mechanical and
rubber membrane. Mechanical switches are simply spring-loaded "push to make" types,
so when pressed down they complete the circuit and then break it again when released.
These are the type used in clicky keyboards with plenty of tactile feedback.
A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors
to detect rotation of the ball about two axes - like a mouse lying on its back. The cursor is
moved about the screen by a user rolling the ball with their thumb, fingers, or the palm of
their hand. There are usually one to three buttons next to the ball, which are in the same
way as mouse buttons.
A joystick is a PC peripheral or general control device consisting of a handheld stick that
pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer.
Most joysticks are two-dimensional, having two axes of movement (similar to a mouse),
but three-dimensional joysticks do exist. A joystick is generally configured so that
moving the stick left or right signals movement along the X axis, and moving it forward
(up) or back (down) signals movement along the Y axis. In joysticks that are configured
for three-dimensional movement, twisting the stick left (counter-clockwise) or right
(clockwise) signals movement along the Z axis. These three axis - X Y and Z - are, in
relation to an aircraft, roll, pitch, and yaw, respectively. Joysticks are often used to
control games, and usually have one or more push-buttons whose state can also be read
by the computer.
A touchscreen is an intuitive computer input device that works by simply touching the
display screen, either by a finger, or with a stylus, rather than typing on a keyboard or
pointing with a mouse. Computers with touchscreens have a smaller footprint, and can be
mounted in smaller spaces; they have fewer movable parts, and can be sealed.
Touchscreens may be built in, or added on. Add-on touchscreens are external frames with
a clear see-through touchscreen which mount onto the monitor bezel and have a
controller built into their frame. Built-in touchscreens are internal, heavy-duty
touchscreens mounted directly onto the CRT tube.
Basic multimedia communication technology tends to cover a range of multimedia
devices, such as sound cards and graphic cards that allow users to create visual
presentations that output sound and /or images. Multimedia generally means the
combination of two or more continuous media. The two media are normally audio and
video, sound plus moving pictures. For example the digital camera may be used
externally to the PC, and allows the user to record images. When connecting the camera
to the computer, using a cord, images will be formatted and printed. Various computers
have sound cards stored within them, this allows output of sound from speakers through
the use of CD’s, and other formats that may have music attached to it. Sound cards allow
individuals to listen to music played or stored on their computer.
Whereas Communications technology refers to the transmission of data from one
computer to another from one device to another. Computer systems refer to an entire
working computer. All computer systems consist of various components they include the
case of the computer the power supply and many other components.
The Motherboard in a computer that manages the communication and function of all
information. The Processor is another term for (CPU) Control Panel Unit. A
microprocessor chip, the CPU is the brain of the computer; it uses mathematical functions
to perform calculations.
Random Access Memory
Also referred to as the (RAM) holds the application programs and data in current use, it
may also be occupied by software as operating systems and interpreters.
Computer systems also include a Bus, the Hard Drive which has encoding data on the
hard drive there has been two approaches firstly being the MFM, and the next being RLL.
Other components include Peripherals, Monitor, Keyboard, and various Pointed Devices
including Joysticks.
Computer Networks
Computer networks are able to achieve communication between a couple of computers.
Networks are split into three parts.
Local Area Network
A Local Area Network is also known as a (LAN) they are privately owned networks
within a single building or campus. LANs are distinguished from other kinds of networks
by three characteristics (1) their size, (2) their transmission technology, and (3) their
This is a LAN device that broadcasts the information it receives to all attached devices
and segments of the network.
This limits the collision domain, can extend network distances, and can also filter packets
on their MAC addresses and ease congestion.
These have two functions firstly to determine the best path to a destination and to share
path information the “route” with other routes. A router can also connect networks using
different media and architectures, which enable them to determine the best path for a
packet to reach another network. They can also filter broadcasts.
Network Interface Card
The Network Interface Card allows devices to connect to the network. They provide
connections for any type of networking media, including wireless media. Internal
hardware installed within computer amongst other devices that allow them to
communicate on a network.
Metropolitan Area Network
This is constructed of LANs that are interconnected across a city or metropolitan area.
An example of a MAN is the cable television network available in many cities. MANs
require routers, telephone and ATM switches, and microwave antennas. They produce
single points of connection between each LAN.
ATM Switch
A network device which is used by telecommunications companies like the local
telephone company to support multiple connections on an ATM network.
Wide Area Network
This is also referred to as a (WAN) Two or more LANs or MANs, which are
interconnected using slow-speed connections over telephone lines.
A modem is a device used by telecommunications companies like the local telephone
company to support multiple connections on an ATM network.
Ans 2 b). Techniques of animations
1. Procedural Animation
Procedures are used that define movement over time. These might
be procedures that use the laws of physics (Physically - based
modeling) or animator generated methods. An example is a motion
that is the result of some other action (this is called a "secondary
action"), for example throwing a ball which hits another object and
causes the second object to move.
2. Representational Animation
This technique allows an object to change its shape during the
animation. There are three subcategories to this. The first is the
animation of articulated objects, i.e., complex objects composed of
connected rigid segments. The second is soft object animation used
for deforming and animating the deformation of objects, e.g. skin over
a body or facial muscles. The third is morphing which is the changing
of one shape into another quite different shape. This can be done in
two or three dimensions.
3. Stochastic Animation
This uses stochastic processes to control groups of objects, such as
in particle systems. Examples are fireworks, fire, water falls, etc.
4. Behavioral Animation
Objects or "actors" are given rules about how they react to their
environment. Examples are schools of fish or flocks of birds where
each individual behaves according to a set of rules defined by the
Authoring systems are menu……………………………………….involved in CBT
Features of Multimedia Authoring Software
Refer topic-3.3 block-1 full content
Difference between flash and authorware
Flash has vector graphics and powerful animation abilities.
 It is an OOP tool (object oriented), giving finite control of many elements
 It is developed as a web-delivery tool first and foremost, and as such
suffers many restrictions (sandboxed in the browser) that prevent access to
the user's system and to many system features and functions.
 Flash is used by millions of people around the world
 The Flash web player is reportedly installed on 98% of all PCs and Macs.
 It has payers for other systems like PocketPC, some phones, Linux, Sun ..
but only Windows and Mac have the most recent player.
 First and foremost Flash was a web-based animation tool, but it has evolved
into a powerful multimedia system. It still has significant handicaps when
compared to tools that are not restricted by the browser.
Authorware has poor vector graphics, but can import most types of images,
movies and animations.
 Authorware is not fully Oop, but does now have the option of using
 JavaScript code which adds an Oop layer to some parts of Authorware.
 Authorware was developed as a computer-based tool for delivering training.
 As it evolved it became a tool for delivering CD-based and then web-based
training too.
 Authorware has the ability to access the entire computer system, including
system dlls, the registry, ActiveX controls ... if packaged as exe this
access is there by default. If web packaged, the Authorware piece has to be
actively 'trusted' to gain such access. NT, Win2000 and XP systems limit
such access to that available via the current user privileges.
 Authorware is used by thousands of people about the world.
 The Authorware web player is usually not preinstalled on user's machines,
and this can be problematic for web delivery, but the problems are not
 Authorware is a PC-based application but it also has a Mac player. There is
an unofficial Linux-based project that makes it possible to run web-packaged
 Authorware files.
 Authorware does not run on portable devices.