Goals of Instructional Design Handout

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Goals of Instructional Design
1) Minimize extraneous processing
Multimedia Design Principle
Coherence
Signaling
Redundancy
Spatial contiguity
Temporal contiguity
Description
Eliminate extraneous material
Highlight essential material
Do not add printed text to spoken text
Place printed text near corresponding graphic
Present narration and corresponding graphic
simultaneously
2) Manage essential processing
Multimedia Design Principle
Segmenting
Pre-training
Modality
Multimedia
Description
Break presentation into parts
Describe names and characteristics of key
elements before the lesson
Use spoken rather than printed text
Use words and pictures rather than words
alone
3) Foster generative processing
Multimedia Design Principle
Personalization
Voice
Embodiment
Guided discovery
Self-explanation
Drawing
Description
Put words in conversational style
Use human voice for spoken words
Give on-screen characters humanlike gestures
Provide hints and feedback as learner solves
problems
Ask learners to explain a lesson to themselves
Ask learners to make drawings for the lesson
Adapted from Table 3.7 (pg 63) of The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, 2nd edition
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