Teenage Pregnancy and
the Menstrual Cycle
By Sachi Minami
What is reproduction?
Reproduction is a the process where organisms make more
organisms like themselves. Two types of sex cells/gametes is involved
in the human reproduction process: sperms and egg cells or ovum.
+ What
is sex?
Differences between protected and
unprotected sex
Sex is when men and
women becomes in a sexual
relationship and have sexual
intercourse. There are two
types of sex: protected and
unprotected sex. Protected
sex is when you have sexual
intercourse with someone
with protection such as
condoms. However,
unprotected sex is when you
have sexual intercourse with
someone without protection.
Possible process when you
have unprotected sex is when
men inserts their penis, which
is an organ that can send
sperm cells into a women’s
vagina where it eventually
fertilizes with the egg cells. If
you have unprotected sex,
there is a huge possibility
that you can get pregnant.
Male and Female Reproductive Systems
Male Reproductive System
Male reproductive system starts with two
testicles/testes to produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells.
Testicles produce sperm cells and hormones such as testosterone
which is a major part of puberty in males. Once males goes
through puberty, they produce even more sperm cells (makes
millions of it everyday), starting to develop their deep voices,
bigger muscles, and body and facial hair. Alongside of the testicles,
there is a part call epididymis which is a set of coil tubes for each
testicle that connects to Vas Deferens which is a muscular tube
that passes upward and alongside the testicles and transports the
sperm-containing fluid called semen. Then, they go to the prostate
glans, which produces parts of semen that surrounds ejaculatory
and ducts at the base of urethra, a channel that carries the seem
to the outside of the body, through the penis below the bladder.
Urine passes through the urethra as well and exits the body.
Pregnancy and
the Menstrual
Female Reproductive System
There are 5 different parts in the female reproductive
system. One of them is ovaries. Ovaries are where it produce
eggs and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. This
connects to the fallopian tube where the ovary release their eggs.
Uterus is a pear-shaped organ which can expand during
pregnancy. On the bottom, there is a lower portion of uterus
where it opens through the vagina called a cervix. Vagina is a
tube-like organ which connects to the uterus where the baby
passes through pregnancy and where sperm cells go through.
An ovulation is a process where a tiny egg leaves one of
the ovaries and travel down to the fallopian tubes toward the
uterus. Before the ovulation, estrogen hormone stimulates the
uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue which
makes walls thicker in the uterus in order to prepare for
pregnancy. When the egg is fertilized: by a sperm cell, it travels
to the uterus and attaches to the wall of the uterus.
Menstruation also known as period, is a major stage of
puberty for girls, in other words, a sign that a girl is turning into a
woman. Menstruation comes every 21-34 days and according to
my experience, Menstruation takes less than 7 days. Period
happens until a woman reaches menopause and no longer release
any eggs from ovaries. On the other hand, menarche is the start
of periods. Menstruation doesn’t happen until all the parts of the
girl’s reproductive system get matured and work together. It
starts between ages 8-13 or older. Hormones stimulates new
physical development: for example, growth, growth in breasts,
and emotions. However, menstruation can cause women to get
cramps, premenstrual syndrome which is an emotional change
where they can get depressed or angry, acne flare-up, etc.
Teenage Pregnancy
Figure 1: Top 28 of the rate of teenage pregnancy (%)
Teenage pregnancy is
common today: 15.8% is the
average of teenage pregnancy
around the world. There are some
people who choses to have an
abortion: 44 million abortions are
done around the world each year.
Abortion is where when you are
pregnant, you kill the baby
because you don't want to give
birth. It can put an end to their
pregnancies forever. Abortion can
only happen if the child was still
an undeveloped embryo or fetus.
These are the possible contraception:
possible things
that can avoid
Blue Text: Male
Hormone pills:
pills that you can
take in order to
However, it is
artificial so its not
good for your
Norplant Implant:
when you implant a
hormone chip
under your skin
which has an ability
to give up hormones
so it can make your
body to think that
you are not
Condoms is for
males where they
cover their penis
with rubber in
order to prevent
from insertion
Red Text: Female
Black Text: Both
sponge: sponge you
put out of your
vagina so when you
have sex, the semen
would soak up into
the sponge without
getting into the
female's body
Diaphragm: cream you
put into the outer of
your vagina that turns
into rubber: more like
girl condoms
Spermicidal foams,
jellies, and creams:
Another prevention
from becoming
pregnant for females
which can kill sperms
in your body.
Rhythm: ovulation
method for example if
your menstrual date was
28 days in total, your
ovulation is in about 14th
day so in the 14th-28th day,
you should not have sex
at that time if you don’t
want to be pregnant
Withdrawal: male
withdrawals his penis
out of the vagina in
order to prevent
from getting
No sex: if you
don't want to be
pregnant, you can
just avoid sex
Is it true that you can’t get pregnant if you have
unprotected sex at specific times/days within your
menstrual cycle?
There is a myth that you can be able to prevent from getting pregnant although having
unprotected sex at the same time. It depends at the specific time/day within your menstrual
cycle. For example, when you have your period and have unprotected sex, you won’t get
pregnant. Also, there is an ovulation method for example if your menstrual date was 28 days in
total, your ovulation is in about 14th day so in the 14th-28th day, you should not have sex at that
time if you don’t want to be pregnant. However, it is 100% never safe to have unprotected sex.
Especially when you have sex during your period, it would be sanitary bad. There are some
people who followed their ovulation date and eventually became pregnant. Every year in the
US, there are about 750,000 teenagers who becomes pregnant although they didn’t plan to.
Unprotected sex is never safe although you kept track on the dates and time because sperm
cells can live for 48 hours in the body after sex. If you have a short period cycle, you will start
ovulating by the end of the period. In addition, the day of ovulation is not predictable. It also
has a possibility to get STDs with no protection.
Lesson for today: If you don’t want to get pregnant,
don’t have
from the first place.
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