CH: 26 Climate of India I.Answer the following questions in one or two sentences. (1)Which winds bring most of the rain to India? The south-west monsoon winds bring most rain to India. (2) Which two areas receive rain in winter? The north-western regions and the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu receive rain in winter. (3) What do you know about the loo? The loo is a hot wind that blows from Rajasthan to the neighbouring states in summer. (4) Why does the south-west monsoon break into two branches? The south-west monsoon winds break into two branches because of the peninsular shape of the country. (5) What are western disturbances? Western disturbances are cyclones that originate in the Mediterranean region and enter India from the north-west giving rain to Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi. II. Answer the following questions in four or five sentences. (6) Discuss the factors that affect the climate of India? The main factors that influence the climate of India are latitudinal position, altitude, distance from the sea, direction of the mountains and prevailing winds. Places away from the equator or situated at higher altitudes are colder. The places in the interior of the country experience extreme climate while those near the coast experience equable climate. The south-west monsoon winds cause rainfall in most parts of the country. (7)Explain the terms ‘kalbaisakhi’ and ‘mango shower’. At the onset of south-west monsoons, Kerala has local thunderstorms called ‘mango showers’. These early showers help in ripening the local mango crop. Similar storms in West Bengal and Assam are called ‘kalbaisakhi’, which means ‘bringing calamity in April’. (8)What problems would India face if the Himalayas did not exist as they do today? If the Himalayas were not there the entire climatic pattern of India would be different. They act as a major barrier and stop the cold winds from Central Asia from coming into India during winter. Thus, the mountains save India from becoming a cold desert. They also do not allow the south-west monsoon winds to cross over to Central Asia and that is why we have rains in the entire country. (9) What do you understand by the term’ retreating monsoon’? The term ‘retreating monsoon’ refers to the reversal of wind pattern over India in September/October. The sun begins to shift towards the southern hemisphere and the Indian landmass begins to cool forming a high pressure zone. The winds now start to blow from land to sea mainly in a north-easterly direction. (10) Why do some areas in India receive winter rainfall? In January, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi receive rain from cyclones which originate in theMediterranean region.These cyclones are called western disturbances. The rainfall helps in the growing and ripening of wheat in winters. If our country were situated across the equator, we would have an equatorial climate. There would not be a winter season. The temperature would remain high throughout the year. We would have rainfall throughout the year and not just in the rainy season.