final exam review guide

Review topics for final exam
Extinction: factors that contribute to extinction, extinction vortices (F, the inbreeding vortex; A, genetic
drift vortex; R, increase in variability of population growth rate); deterministic vs stochastic causes of
extinction; intrinsic vs. extrinsic factors that lead toward extinction; relationship between taxon size,
range, ability to disperse, fecundity, population size, rate of increase, and its likelihood to go extinct.
MVP - Minimum viable populations: modeled using PVA - Population Viability Analysis, which
generates a population size and probability of survival (usually 95%) over a given period of time (usually
100 years). Advantages and disadvantages of experimentation vs. modeling to generate PVAs; data
requirements, stochastic vs. deterministic models. Uses of PVAs: determining MVP, reserve size, choice
of population(s) to conserve, how are locations of marine protected areas (MPAs) defined and established,
Reserves: what are the goals of reserves, what characteristics need to be incorporated into the choice and
design of reserves, what obstacles exist in design and implementation of reserves
Endangered Species Act: History (when was it passed, what species did it cover first) what are the goals,
how do species get listed, what are the criteria for listing), in what ways does it succeed, or fail; how do
we know how many species exist, in order to determine what proportion is imperiled
How do economic status, food security, physical/psychological well-being, human safety impact
conservation priorities and actions, attitudes toward conservation?
Review the ‘classic’ examples of conservation biology: Florida panther, California condor, snail darter,
Pacific salmon, sturgeons, Puerto Rican parrots, heath hen, passenger pigeon, dusky seaside sparrow,
Stellar’s sea cow - how did they become endangered, what were the primary issues involved in
conservation, what actions were taken?
Review Excel functions used in spreadsheets and what they do; what spreadsheet models accomplish,
why they are a valuable tool for conservation biology
Terms to know: (I have deliberately not defined them here; a useful tool for studying will be looking these
up in the text, or online).
Allee effect
standard deviation
sensitivity analysis
flagship species
umbrella species
keystone species
indicator species
take (referring to endangered species)
ESU - evolutionary significant units
distinct population segments
critical habitat
HCP - habitat conservation plan
conservation vs preservation
HWC – human-wildlife interactions