Article Outline


I. Introduction A. Male confidence in paternity, cross species and cross-culture means more care given B. Manipulate male capsule load in order to see if costly to males, thus investment II. Methods A. Carry clutches of eggs from many different females B. Only males with clutches taken, weighed with and without clutches C. Control left unmanipulated; experimental group attached eggs to completely cobver D. Genetic and parental analyses and estimated relatedness III. Results A. Males with eggs lost more weight the males without and more weight than females. B. Males only sired 24% of offspring, highly promiscuous women IV. Discussion A. Males provide post-zygotic care, demonstrated by decrease in mass B. Some of the highest levels of polyandry in an internally fertilized organism C. More than 70% of zygotes they were carrying were not theirs D. Usually males who carry eggs paternity insurance is assured, otherwise nest-defending behavior helps E. Usually low assurance creates low level of investment F. Unclear why females are promiscuous G. i. increased survival potential ii. convenience of polyandry, don’t have to ward off Males can’t avoid caring for offspring in species V. Conclusion A. High level of promiscuity, low level of paternity assurance, costly male care