APES: Ch. 7 – 11 Study Guide Review all vocabulary, notes

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APES: Ch. 7 – 11 Study Guide

Review all vocabulary, notes, textbook chapters, labs & activities. Do all practice AP questions at the end of each chapter.

Ch. 7: Climate & Biodiversity

1.

Explain the difference between weather & climate

2.

What factors determine climate?

3.

Know, be able to identify, and explain various biomes and where they are located. For example: Plant and animal adaptations to different biomes: desert plants and animals; plants and animals of the tundra; mountain microclimates and vertically zoned vegetation; organisms of the Amazon.

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How are mountain ecosystems like "islands of biodiversity"? What other island-like habitats are there?

Why are rainforests more diverse than other forests?

What would happen if ocean currents stopped redistributing heat? How could this situation arise?

Is the greenhouse effect the same as global warming? How do these two concepts differ?

Why are grasslands well-suited for raising crops?

Describe at least five different factors which contribute to global air-circulation patterns.

Describe an upwelling, where it could occur, and how it might be affected by an El Nino-Southern Oscillation

Where does ENSO occur and where are the greatest effects?

Explain

economic and ecological

effects of ENSO.

Describe the general effects of the following microclimates: windward and leeward sides of a mountain (where are these places),

14.

forests, and cities.

Describe how climate affects the distribution of plant life on Earth. Draw connections between biomes and the following plants, which are particularly adapted for different biomes: succulent plants, broadleaf evergreen plants, broadleaf deciduous plants, coniferous evergreen plants.

15.

Compare the climate and adaptations of plants and animals in deserts, grasslands, and forests. Describe the distinctive qualities of a

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chaparral ecosystem. Be sure to distinguish among the three major kinds of forests (boreal, deciduous, tropical, temperate).

Be able to read/analyze a climatogram

Ch. 8: Aquatic Biodiversity

1.

Summarize the distribution of light, salt, and temperature in different aquatic life zones.

2.

3.

Evaluate the significance of the ecological contributions of the oceans. What ecosystem services are provided by the oceans?

Briefly describe the characteristics and ecological significance of coral reefs. Describe environmental and economic problems of

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coral reefs.

Distinguish between coastal and inland wetlands. Describe the ecological functions performed by wetlands. Describe environmental problems associated with coastal and inland wetlands.

List and compare the four zones of a lake. Distinguish between oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Describe stratification and a

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Ch. 9: Sustaining Biodiversity: the Species Approach

1.

Explain: Extinction, threatened, & endangered

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turnover in a lake. Be able to visually depict this turnover as well.

Lentic vs. lotic?

List and distinguish the three zones of a river system and the zones of marine ecosystems.

How have humans influenced extinction rates? Include HIPPCO

Explain why we should care that species are going extinct.

Explain Laws: CITES, ESA, CBD, Lacey

Explain the precautionary principle

Ch. 10: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystems Approach

1.

Explain the economic & ecological importance of forests.

2.

Explain how forests vary in their age, makeup and origin

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List & explain the tree harvesting methods

What role does fire play in the forest?

What is the difference between rangelands and pastures? How should both be managed?

What are some threats to our national parks? What are some solutions?

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Ch. 11: Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

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Review wolves in Yellowstone

What is a biodiversity hotspot?

Explain the 4 point strategy to sustaining biodiversity.

What are the major threats to aquatic biodiversity?

List and explain major fishing methods. (fish farming in cage, purse-seine fishing, long line fishing, deep sea aquaculture cage, drift-net fishing, bottom trawling, using sonar

3.

Explain the laws associated with fishing (magnuson fishery conservation act, ESA, Marine Mammal protection act, Marine sanctuaries act, Lacey Act)

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What is the difference between maximum sustained yield and optimum sustained yield? What about multispecies management?

How should humans protect fisheries? wetlands? freshwater ecosystems?

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