Lesson 04

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Vocabulary Lesson 04
Words in Context:
The First Americans- Wisdom Stories
Like stories all over the world, American Indian stories teach children the history, customs and philosophy or
their people. A Blackfoot story explains how the Buffalo Dance began. An Ojibwa legend recounts how maze
first grew from the body of a young man who came from the sky. Strange events occur, and the laws of nature
may not operate as expected. For these stories do not simply teach practical, everyday knowledge. They also
show ways to inner wisdom.
Read the ten vocabulary words below and decipher each word's definition based on its context within the
sentences below.
1) Advent- A wisdom story may tell how the world began. According to the Cherokee, the advent of
people on earth resulted when Star Woman fell from the sky.
2) Alliance- Only the alliance of may creatures- turtle, water spider, muskrat and buzzard all working
together- saved her. From her body came all life.
3) Anthology- The story of Star Woman is included in an anthology of Cherokee legends. It's just one of
several stories published in this group of tales.
4) Defy- Star Woman also bore two sons. One son loved the good. The other chose to defy the way of
peace and order and follow the way of anger. He is called the Brother of the Dark Face.
5) Integrity- Yet the Cherokee do not scorn this brother because they believe that the integrity of a person
cannot be lost. They believe the each person contains both good and bad, and these two elements are
what make a person whole.
6) Misdeed- For that reason, no matter how bad a person's misdeed is, even if it is a serious crime, he or
she can always turn toward the good and find a new life.
7) Mystical- To the Cherokee, each life has mystical value; there is something divine in each of us.
8) Nourish- A person has only to nourish the seed of good- to care for it and feed it- and it will grow into
9) Pacify- In the old days, at a special village called Peace Village, anyone- no matter what his or her
crimes- could come and learn how to pacify, or calm, strong emotions such as fear, anger and jealousy.
10) Sustain- In a year's time, the person could be accepted again into society. In this way, the Cherokee
sought to sustain, or keep up, peace in the community.
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Vocabulary Lesson 04
Scan the definitions in Column A. Then, think about how the boldface words are used in the sentences in
Column B. To complete the exercise, match each definition in Column A with the correct Vocabulary
Word from Column B. Write the letter of your choice on the line provided. Finally, write the Vocabulary
Word on the line before the definition.
_____ 01. word:
v. to refuse or resist openly; to dare; to withstand
(A) Many people see modern civilization's misdeeds against
the planet everywhere. Examples are the pollution of the air
and water.
_____ 02. word:
n. a bad or illegal act
(B) Traditional stories remind us to nourish, to develop and
strengthen our ties to the earth.
_____ 03. word:
adj. having spiritual meaning; mysterious; secret
(C) According to American Indian philosophy, a good
relationship with Earth is crucial to one's integrity, to one's
sense of wholeness.
_____ 04. word:
n. wholeness; soundness; strength of character;
_____ 05. word:
n. a formal agreement between nations or people for
a particular cause
_____ 06. word:
n. a collection of stories, poems, etc.
(D) A good relationship with Earth is a theme that ran through
many of the stories collected in American Indian anthologies.
(E) Peoples' relationship to Earth has mystical meaning to
many American Indians, In fact, it is central to their religions.
(F) The Taos people use stories to sustain their beliefs. They
believe that Earth is the source of all life and that the first
people came out of Blue Lake.
_____ 07. word:
v. to bring into submission; to soothe someone who
is upset; to quiet or calm
(G) When the U.S. government place Blue Lake inside Kit
Carson National Forest, the Taoserios could not be pacified
into accepting their loss. They protested strongly against being
separated from their sacred land.
_____ 08. word:
v. to keep up, to provide with food; to support; to
encourage; to endure
(H) When they regained their lake in 1971, their victory
marked the advent of a new respect for the traditions of
American Indians.
_____ 09. word:
n. arrival; the coming of something, especially
something long awaited
(I) With the American Indian Freedom of Religion Act in
1978, American Indians no longer need to defy the
government to practice their ancient beliefs. They could do so
_____ 10. word:
v. to support; to withstand; to provide for; to keep in
existence; to uphold as reasonable; to suffer or
(J) In addition, American Indians formed a sort of alliance
with all against any threat to religious freedom. All stood
together for a common cause.
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Vocabulary Lesson 04: Like Meanings and Opposite Meanings
Directions. For each item below, circle the letter of the choice that means the same, or about the
same, as the boldface word.
a person of integrity
D) author
A) many interests
to sustain life
A) study about
B) support
C) create
D) seriously injure
B) another country
C) honesty
D) intelligence
to address the alliance
A) a small audience
B) a business- size envelope
C) persons having a formal agreement
D) business people
a violent misdeed
A) accident
B) argument
C) plan
D) wrong
an anthology of poems
A) book
B) assortment
C) encyclopedia
Directions. For each item below, circle the letter of the choice that means opposite, or about the
opposite, of the boldface word.
defy orders
A) follow
B) announce
C) give
D) resist
a mystical experience
A) spiritual
B) mysterious
C) secret
D) ordinary
pacify the baby
A) upset
B) calm
C) hold
D) feed
nourish our hopes
A) cherish
B) raise
C) starve
D) protect
advent of the political movement
A) adventure
B) justice
C) customs
D) departure