CH 19 Study Guide - Due hard copy 4/22

CHAPTER 19 Study Guide
Per ___ NAME______________________
1. How are hazardous and toxic materials released into the environment? 6 ways illustrated by bullet points on
page 436
2. Why is controlling the release of toxic substances difficult? - p436 middle column bottom.
3. Define hazardous substance.
4. According to the EPA, hazardous substances have one or more of these four characteristics. Define and give
an example of each.
5. What is the difference between hazardous substances and hazardous wastes? p. 437
6. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) gives EPA the authority to control hazardous waste
from the "cradle-to-grave." Explain (see Fig 19.1
7. Read “Determining toxicity” p. 439. Define LD50 and describe an experiment that might be used to establish
the LD50 of BOTOX.
What are 2 complications of the LD50 measure of toxicity. (same box essay).
8. Three primary ways that people can be exposed to hazardous substances (p. 349 middle column).
9. Define “threshold level”.
10. Distinguish between Acute and chronic toxicity. Give an example of each.
11. What is synergism? Give an example.
12. Distinguish between persistent pollutants and nonpersistant pollutants. Give an example of each.
13. Read box essay on p. 441. How did the ancient Romans get lead poisoning?
What was the source of mercury poisoning in Minamata Bay?
What source of mercury has led to concern for human health on the West Coast in the past several years? Tthink
CH 17 Air).
14. What are the human health effects of lead and mercury? p. 442 Table 19.1
15. In the U.S., the principal cleaner-upper of toxic waste dumps in the _____________________________
under a program popularly called ___________________. p. 443
Under the Superfund program, millions of dollars were spent by the federal government, but most money went
for _______________________________ and little of the money was paid for ___________________p443-444
16.What is CERCLA and what are its 4 primary objectives? p. 443
17. Toxic releases are dominated by _______________________ and ______________________________.
Toxic Release Inventory = Find a polluter in Oakland.
18. The pollution-prevention hierarchy’s 4 steps are:
What was the “green bullet”? p. 446
19. Describe each method of treating wastes: p. 446
air stripping
carbon absorption
20. What type of wastes can incineration dispose of? What can’t it dispose of?
What are 4 types of Land Disposal of wastes.
21. What international U.N. Convention addresses the generation and transportation of hazardous wastes across