Chemical Reactions

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WPHS Chemistry
Unit 4
Chemical Reactions
Bergmann-Sams
-1-
Chemistry: Unit 4 Outline: Chemical Reactions
Assignment
Podcast 4.1: Converting Word Equations into Formulaic Equations
Worksheet 4.1: Converting Word Equations into Formulaic Equations
Podcast 4.2: Balancing Chemical Equations
Worksheet 4.2: Balancing Chemical Equations
Podcast 4.3: Reaction Types Overview
Worksheet 4.3: Reaction Types Overview
Lab: Types of Reactions Lab
Podcast 4.4: Predicting Single Replacement Reactions
Worksheet 4.4: Predicting Single Replacement Reactions
Lab: Activity Series of a Metal
Podcast 4.5: Predicting Double Replacement Reactions
Worksheet 4.5: Predicting Double Replacement Reactions
Lab: Small Scale Double Replacement
Podcast 4.6: Complete Ion and Net Ionic Equations
Worksheet 4.6: Complete Ion and Net Ionic Equations
Podcast 4.7: Mixed Types of Reactions
Worksheet 4.7: Mixed Types of Reactions
Demo: Light your teacher on FIRE!!!
Unit 4 Review (Review)
Unit 4 Vocabulary
Unit 4 Exam
Unit 4 Vocabulary
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word equation
chemical equation
skeleton equation
Catalyst
Combination Reactions
Decomposition Reaction
Single Replacement Reaction
Double Replacement Reaction
precipitate
Combustion Reaction

Ion
Ionic
and Net Ionic Equations


-2-
Only in
Class
X
X
X
X
X
Check
Cut out the following 2 tables and put them in the back of your composition book. These are reference
tables that you will use throughout the year.
Activity of Metals Series
Metal
Lithium: Li
Potassium: K
Barium: Ba
Calcium: Ca
Sodium: Na
Magnesium: Mg
Aluminum: Al
Manganese: Mn
Zinc: Zn
Chromium: Cr
Iron: Fe
Cadmium: Cd
Cobalt: Co
Nickel: Ni
Tin: Sn
Lead: Pb
Hydrogen: H
Copper: Cu
Silver: Ag
Mercury: Hg
Platinum: Pt
Gold: Au
Ion Formed
Li+
K+
Ba2+
Ca2+
Na+
Mg2+
Al3+
Mn2+
Zn2+
Cr3+
Fe3+
Cd2+
Co2+
Ni2+
Sn2+
Pb2+
2H+
Cu2+
Ag+
Hg2+
Pt2+
Au3+
Solubility Table
Key: (s) = solid, (aq)= aqueous: soluble in water, H2O = water formed (NE)= does not exist,
Acetate
Bromide
Carbonate
Chlorate
Chloride
Chromate
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Phophate
Sulfate
Sulfide
Aluminum
Ammonium
Barium
Calcium
Copper II
Hydrogen
Iron II
Iron III
Lead II
Magnesium
Manganese II
Mercury II
Potassium
Silver I
Sodium
Strontium
Tin II
Tin IV
Zinc II
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
NE
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
Gas
(s)
NE
(s)
(s)
(s)
NE
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
NE
NE
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
NE
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
NE
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
NE
NE
NE
(s)
(s)
(aq)
NE
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
H2O
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
NE
(aq)
(s)
(s)
NE
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
NE
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(aq)
(s)
(aq)
(aq)
(s)
(s)
(s)
-3-
-4-
Types of Reactions Lab
Purpose: To observe the different types of reactions: single replacement, synthesis,
decomposition, combustion, double replacement.
Single Replacement (Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid)
Synthesis (Hydrogen + Oxygen)
Decomposition (Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2))
Combustion (Cellulose (C6H12O6) + Oxygen)
Double Replacement (Calcium Chloride + Sodium Carbonate)
Part A: Single Replacement and Synthesis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Place one square of Zinc into a medium test tube.
Add 10mL of 1.0M HCl
Cover the test tube with your thumb
Record observations
Write the chemical reaction for this single replacement reaction
6. Have your partner light a wood splint
7. Release your thumb and immediately have your partner place the wood splint near
the mouth of the test tube.
8. Record your observations
9. Write the chemical reaction for this synthesis reaction (water is a product).
OBSERVATIONS and REACTIONS
-5-
Part B: Decomposition and Combustion
1.
2.
3.
4.
Place 10ml of hydrogen peroxide into a medium test tube
Add 0.2g of MnO2 (MnO2 is a catalyst and is not part of the reaction)
Record your observations
Write the chemical reaction for this decomposition reaction (products are water
and oxygen gas)
5. While the decomposition reaction is still occurring light a wood splint, let it burn
for a few seconds and blow it out.
6. While the wood splint is still glowing (but not burning), place it into the mouth of
the test tube.
7. Record your observations
8. Write the chemical reaction for this combustion reaction between cellulous and
oxygen.
OBSERVATIONS and REACTIONS
Part C: Double Replacement
1. Obtain 1mL of 1.0M Calcium Chloride and 1mL of 1.0M Sodium Carbonate
2. Mix the two solutions in a medium test tube
3. Record your observations
4. Write the chemical reaction for this double replacement reaction
OBSERVATIONS and REACTIONS
-6-
Activity Series of Metals Lab
Purpose: To observe an activity series of different metals.
Procedure:
1. Using the well plates, select a row of wells for each solution listed in the data
table. Make sure that you write down which letter and number your wells are for
each solution. There should be three wells for each solution (one of the three for
each of the metals).
2. Put five drops of each solution in the wells chosen for that solution.
3. Put one piece of magnesium in one of the wells for each solution. For example,
you should have a well of copper sulfate with magnesium in it, a well of
magnesium sulfate with magnesium in it, and a well of sodium chloride with
magnesium in it, a well of zinc sulfate with magnesium in it and a well of silver
nitrate with magnesium in it.
4. Repeat step 3 with copper instead of magnesium.
5. Repeat step 3 with zinc instead of magnesium.
6. After l minute has passed, make observations of both the metal strips and the
solutions. Put these observations in a data table in your comp book that looks like
the one below. Label this data table as 1 minute.
7. After 5 total minutes have passed, take another set of observations. Make another
data table like the one below and label it 5 minutes.
8. After 15 total minutes have passed, take another set of observations. Again, make
another data table and label it 15 minutes.
Data Table:
CuSO4
MgSO4
NaCl
ZnCl2
AgNO3
Cu metal
Mg metal
Zn metal
Analysis Questions: (as always with labs, these questions should be written in complete
sentences)
1. Why doesn’t the metal react with the same metal solution?
2. In which wells did the appearance of the metal change? Be sure to tell your
teacher what both of the reactants of the well were.
3. Write a balanced equation for each visible reaction between a metal and it’s
solution. Be sure to identify what types of reactions these are.
4. Based on the results of your experiment construct your own activity series for the
five metals. Put the most active metal first and the least active metal last. Be sure
to include your reasoning for your rankings.
5. In a short summary paragraph, describe and explain the patterns that you see in
your reaction table.
-7-
Double Replacement Lab
Use Beral Pipets to add each solution on the grid. For those that have a reaction occur,
describe the reaction. For those that do not, record NVR (No visible reaction) When
done you need to:
1. Write out each complete reaction that occurs (you must balance it)
2. Write out the ionic equation for each reaction that occurs.
3. Write out the net-ionic equation for each reaction that occurs.
Put “flimsy” over the top of this page and mix all of the chemicals. Do not mix the same
chemical with the same.
Chemical NaCl
AgNO3
Pb(NO3)2 Na2SO4
BaCl2
NaOH
Na3PO4
NaCl
AgNO3
Pb(NO3)2
Na2SO4
BaCl2
NaOH
Na3PO4
X
X
X
X
X
X
XX
X
X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X
X
X X
X X
X
X X X
-8-
Data Table: Write in your observations here.
Chemical NaCl
AgNO3
Pb(NO3)2 Na2SO4
NaCl
AgNO3
Pb(NO3)2
Na2SO4
BaCl2
NaOH
Na3PO4
-9-
BaCl2
NaOH
Na3PO4
Worksheet 4.1: Converting Word Equations to Formulaic Equations
Write each of the following equations using chemical symbols and all other appropriate
symbols. Remember to put state of matter in parenthesis and subscripted.
1. Iron is heated in the presence of solid sulfur to from solid iron III sulfide
2. Gaseous methane CH4 is reacted with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and
water vapor
3. Aqueous copper II chloride is added to aqueous lead II nitrate to from solid lead II
chloride and aqueous copper II nitrate
4. Chlorine gas is bubbled into aqueous sodium bromide to form aqueous sodium
chloride and liquid bromine
5. Solid silver is added to aqueous gold III chloride to form solid gold and silver I
chloride.
6. Gaseous ammonia(NH3) is bubble into water to form aqueous ammonium
hydroxide
- 10 -
Worksheet 4.2: Balancing Chemical Equations
Balance the following equations
1) __HgO

__Hg +
__O2
2) __HCl +
__Mg 
__H2 +
MgCl2
3) __CH4 +
__O2 
__CO2 +
__H2O
4) __C6H12O6
+ __O2 
__CO2 + __H2O
5) __H2 +
__O2 
__H2O
6) __H2 +
__N2 
__NH3
7) __NO +
__O2 
__NO2
8) __Al2O3

9) __CaO +
__H2O 
__Al
+
__O2
__Ca(OH)2
10) Hydrogen gas reacts with iodine to produce hydroiodic acid.
11) Sulfur reacts with oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide.
- 11 -
12) Calcium acetate reacts with sodium carbonate to produce calcium carbonate and
sodium acetate.
13) Iron combines with oxygen and water to form iron (III) hydroxide
14) Sulfur trioxide is bubbled through water to produce sulfuric acid
15) Copper-bottomed cooking pans turn black because copper combines with oxygen
to form copper (II) oxide.
16) Magnesium hydroxide neutralizes stomach acid, HCl, to produce magnesium
chloride and water.
- 12 -
Worksheet 4.3
Now go back to Worksheets 4.1 and 4.2 and write down the type of each reaction
Worksheet 4.4: Predicting Single Replacement Reactions
Predict the products and balance the following single replacement reactions. If no
reaction occurs write N.R. For transition metals use the following charges:
1. Fe (s)
+
CuCl2(aq) 
2. Hg(l)
+
Sn(SO4)2 (aq) 
3. Ba (s) +
Ni3(PO4)2 (aq)
4. Pb(s)
+
Au(NO3)3 (aq)
5. Li(s)
+
HOH(l)
6. K(s)
+
AgCl(s) 
7. Ca(s)
+
NaOH(aq) 
8. Cu(s)
+
Fe(OH)3(aq) 

- 13 -
9. Fe(s)
+
Cu(OH)2(s)
10. Lead II Chloride + Magnesium
11. Barium Nitrate + Zinc
12. Potassium + Tin IV Nitrate
13. Copper + Silver Nitrate
14. Sodium Phosphate + Potassium
15. Gold + Hydrochloric acid
16. Magnesium + Aluminum Hydroxide
- 14 -
17. Iron + Copper II Sulfate
18. Iron + Nickel II Iodide
19. Sodium Permanganate + Calcium
20. hydrochloric acid + Zinc
21. Aluminum + Iron II dichromate
- 15 -
Worksheet 4.5: Predicting Double Replacement Reactions
Complete and Balance the following reactions. If no reaction occurs then write N.R.
1) Na2SO4 (aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) ---->
2) NaNO3(aq) +
NH4Cl(aq) ----->
3) Pb(NO3)2 (aq) +
Na2CrO4(aq)
4) ZnCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq) ---->
5) Ammonium Chloride + Silver Nitrate ------>
6) Barium Acetate +
Copper II Chromate
- 16 -
7) Solutions of Silver Nitrate and ammonium chloride are mixed
8) Solutions of Lead II nitrate and Sodium Chloride are mixed
9) Solutions of zinc sulfate and magnesium chloride are mixed
10) Solutions of Ammonium phosphate and Zinc Chlorate are mixed
11) Solutions of Aluminum bromide and Iron II Iodide are mixed
- 17 -
12) Solutions of sodium sulfide and Iron II Chlorate are mixed
13) Solutions of copper II bromide and potassium phosphate are mixed
14) Solutions of barium acetate and zinc sulfate are mixed
- 18 -
Worksheet 4.6: Complete Ion and Net Ionic Equations
For the following reactions write the:
a. Complete Equation (Indicate states): Balance
b. Ionic Equation
c. Net Ionic Equation
1. ZnCl2 (aq) + Na2S (aq)  ZnS(s) + NaCl(aq)
2. (NH4)3PO4 + AgNO3 
3. Magnesium Nitrate + Potassium phosphate  Magnesium Phosphate (s) +
Potassium Nitrate.
4. Lead II Acetate + Potassium Iodide
- 19 -
Worksheet 4.7: Mixed Types of Reactions
Directions: For each of the following reactions:
1) Identify the type of reaction (Single Replacement, combination, double replacement,
decomposition, or combustion)
2) Complete the reaction (Put NR if no reaction takes place)
3) Balance it
4) Indicate states of matter for each substance (solid, liquid, gas, aqueous)
1) NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) 
2) Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) 
3) C4H10(g) + O2(g) 
4) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) 
5) AgNO3(aq) + Li(s) 
6) LiBr(aq) + Cu(s) 
7) MgS(s) + NaOH 
- 20 -
8) Hg(l) + LiCl

9) Li(s) + HgCl2(aq) 
10) C3H8(g)
+ O2(g) 
11) Ammonium Nitrate is added to sodium chloride
12) Lithium Chloride is added to Zinc Phosphate
13) Zinc is added to lithium chloride
14) Iron is added to a solution of silver nitrate
- 21 -
15) A solution of copper II sulfate is added to an iron nail
16) Octane (C8H18) is burned in air
17) A solution of Tin IV sulfate is added to a solution of ammonium hydroxide
18) Sodium hydroxide is added to hydrochloric acid
19) Calcium hydroxide is added to sulfuric acid
20) Nickel is added to hydrochloric acid
21) Strontium is added to water
22) Hydrochloric acid is added to copper metal
- 22 -
23) Solid bismuth is added to a solution of barium hydroxide.
24) Methanol (CH3OH) is burned in air
25) Solid gold is added to hydrochloric acid
- 23 -
Unit 4 Review Sheet
Part A: Balance the following reactions and indicate whether they are synthesis or
decomposition reactions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
SO3 +
H2O
HgO
Al2O3(s)
P
+
H2O
--->
--->
--->
O2
--->
H2
Hg
Al(s)
--->
H2SO4
+
O2
+
O2
+
O2(g)
P2O5
Type:_____________
Type:_____________
Type:_____________
Type:_____________
Type:_____________
Part B: Predict the products and indicate type (include states):
1. KBr --->
Type: _________
2. Li + Cl2 --->
Type: _________
3. Rb2CO3 --->
Type: _________
4. NiO --->
Type: _________
5. CO2 + H2O--->
Type: _________
Part C: Predict the products, balance, include states, and indicate type.
1.
Molten sodium is reacted with chlorine gas
2. Calcium is added to water
Type: _________
(think of water as HOH)
Type: _________
3. Aluminum chloride decomposes into its elements
Type: _________
4. Potassium and Bromine are reacted
Type: _________
- 24 -
5. Iodine reacts with hydrogen
Type: _________
Part D:
Write the molecular equation, the complete ionic equation, and the net ionic equation for
each reaction.
1.
Aqueous lithium phosphate reacts with aqueous calcium chloride
2. Aqueous potassium chloride reacts with aqueous lead II chlorate
3. Aqueous manganese II nitrate reacts with aqueous sodium sulfide.
- 25 -
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