Kuwait HDR 2013 Statistical Explanation

advertisement
Human Development Report 2013
The Rise of the South:
Human Progress in a Diverse World
Explanatory note on 2013 HDR composite indices
Kuwait
HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report
Introduction
The 2013 Human Development Report presents Human Development Index (HDI) values and ranks for
187 countries and UN-recognized territories, along with the Inequality-adjusted HDI for 132 countries, the
Gender Inequality Index for 148 countries, and the Multidimensional Poverty Index for 104 countries.
Country rankings and values in the annual Human Development Index (HDI) are kept under strict
embargo until the global launch and worldwide electronic release of the Human Development Report.
It is misleading to compare values and rankings with those of previously published reports, because the
underlying data and methods have changed. Readers are advised in the Report to assess progress in
HDI values by referring to table 2 (‘Human Development Index Trends’) in the Statistical Annex of the
report. Table 2 is based on consistent indicators, methodology and time-series data and thus shows real
changes in values and ranks over time reflecting the actual progress countries have made. Caution is
requested when interpreting small changes in values because they may not be statistically significant due
to the sampling variation. Generally speaking, changes in third decimal of all composite indices are
considered insignificant.
For further details on how each index is calculated please refer to Technical Notes 1-4 and the associated
background papers available on the Human Development Report website.
Human Development Index (HDI)
The HDI is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human
development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. As in the 2011
HDR a long and healthy life is measured by life expectancy. Access to knowledge is measured by: i)
mean years of schooling for the adult population, which is the average number of years of education
received in a life-time by people aged 25 years and older; and ii) expected years of schooling for children
of school-entrance age, which is the total number of years of schooling a child of school-entrance age can
expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates stay the same throughout the
child's life. Standard of living is measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita expressed in
constant 2005 international dollars converted using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates.
To ensure as much cross-country comparability as possible, the HDI is based primarily on international
data from the United Nations Population Division, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics (UIS) and the World Bank. As stated in the introduction,
the HDI values and ranks in this year’s report are not comparable to those in past reports (including the
2011 HDR) because of a number of revisions done to the component indicators by the mandated
agencies. To allow for assessment of progress in HDIs, the 2013 report includes recalculated HDIs from
1980 to 2012.
Kuwait’s HDI value and rank
Kuwait’s HDI value for 2012 is 0.790—in the high human development category—positioning the country
at 54 out of 187 countries and territories. Between 1980 and 2012, Kuwait’s HDI value increased from
0.695 to 0.790, an increase of 14 percent or average annual increase of about 0.4 percent.
The rank of Kuwait’s HDI for 2011 based on data available in 2012 and methods used in 2012 was– 53
out of 187 countries. In the 2011 HDR, Kuwait was ranked 63 out of 187 countries. However, it is
misleading to compare values and rankings with those of previously published reports, because the
underlying data and methods have changed.
Table A reviews Kuwait’s progress in each of the HDI indicators. Between 1980 and 2012, Kuwait’s life
expectancy at birth increased by 4.5 years, mean years of schooling increased by 1.8 years and expected
years of schooling increased by 3.1 years. Kuwait’s GNI per capita increased by about 2 percent between
1980 and 2012.
Table A: Kuwait’s HDI trends based on consistent time series data, new component indicators and
new methodology
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
Life expectancy
at birth
70.2
71.5
72.5
73.1
73.5
73.9
74.5
74.6
74.7
Expected years
of schooling
11.1
12.1
10.4
11.5
14.6
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.2
Mean years of
schooling
4.3
5.3
5.5
5.7
6.1
6
6.1
6.1
6.1
GNI per capita
(2005 PPP$)
51,872
33,535
37,224
49,092
45,168
53,120
48,492
51,026
52,793
Figure 1 below shows the contribution of each component index to Kuwait’s HDI since 1980.
Figure 1: Trends in Kuwait’s HDI component indices 1980-2012
HDI value
0.695
0.718
0.712
0.743
0.781
0.784
0.786
0.788
0.790
Assessing progress relative to other countries
Long-term progress can be usefully assessed relative to other countries–both in terms of geographical
location and HDI value. For instance, during the period between 1980 and 2012 Kuwait, Qatar and
Bahrain experienced different degrees of progress toward increasing their HDIs (see figure 2).
Figure 2: Trends in Kuwait’s HDI 1980-2012
Kuwait’s 2012 HDI of 0.790 is above the average of 0.758 for countries in the high human development
group and above the average of 0.652 for countries in Arab States. From Arab States, countries which
are close to Kuwait in 2012 HDI rank and population size are Oman and Qatar, which have HDIs ranked
84 and 36 respectively (see table B).
Table B: Kuwait’s HDI indicators for 2012 relative to selected countries and groups
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Arab States
High HDI
HDI value
HDI rank
0.790
0.731
0.834
0.652
0.758
54
84
36
—
—
Life
expectancy
at birth
74.7
73.2
78.5
71
73.4
Expected
years of
schooling
14.2
13.5
12.2
10.6
13.9
Mean years
of schooling
6.1
5.5
7.3
6
8.8
GNI per
capita (PPP
US$)
52,793
24,092
87,478
8,317
11,501
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)
The HDI is an average measure of basic human development achievements in a country. Like all
averages, the HDI masks inequality in the distribution of human development across the population at the
country level. The 2010 HDR introduced the Inequality Adjusted HDI (IHDI), which takes into account
inequality in all three dimensions of the HDI by ‘discounting’ each dimension’s average value according to
its level of inequality. The HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development and the IHDI
as an index of actual human development. The ‘loss’ in potential human development due to inequality is
given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI, and can be expressed as a percentage. (For more
details see technical note 2). Due to a lack of relevant data, the IHDI has not been calculated for this
country.
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) reflects gender-based inequalities in three dimensions – reproductive
health, empowerment, and economic activity. Reproductive health is measured by maternal mortality and
adolescent fertility rates; empowerment is measured by the share of parliamentary seats held by each
gender and attainment at secondary and higher education by each gender; and economic activity is
measured by the labour market participation rate for each gender. The GII replaced the previous Genderrelated Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index. The GII shows the loss in human
development due to inequality between female and male achievements in the three GII dimensions. (For
more details on GII please see Technical note 3 in the Statistics Annex).
Kuwait has a GII value of 0.274, ranking it 47 out of 148 countries in the 2012 index. In Kuwait, 6.3
percent of parliamentary seats are held by women, and 53.7 percent of adult women have reached a
secondary or higher level of education compared to 46.6 percent of their male counterparts. For every
100,000 live births, 14 women die from pregnancy related causes; and the adolescent fertility rate is 14.4
births per 1000 live births. Female participation in the labour market is 43.4 percent compared to 82.3 for
men.
In comparison Oman and Qatar are ranked at 59 and 117 respectively on this index.
Table D: Kuwait’s GII for 2012 relative to selected countries and groups
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Arab States
High HDI
GII
value
GII
Rank
Maternal
mortality
ratio
Adolescent
fertility rate
Female
seats in
parliament
(%)
0.274
0.34
0.546
0.555
0.376
47
59
117
—
—
14
32
7
176
47
14.4
9.3
15.5
39.2
45.9
6.3
9.6
0.1
13
18.5
Population with at
least secondary
education (%)
Labour force
participation rate
(%)
Female
53.7
47.2
70.1
31.8
62.9
Female
43.4
28.3
51.8
22.8
46.8
Male
46.6
57.1
62.1
44.7
65.2
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
The 2010 HDR introduced the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which identifies multiple
deprivations in the same households in education, health and standard of living. The education and
health dimensions are based on two indicators each while the standard of living dimension is based on
six indicators. All of the indicators needed to construct the MPI for a household are taken from the same
household survey. The indicators are weighted, and the deprivation scores are computed for each
household in the survey. A cut-off of 33.3 percent, which is the equivalent of one-third of the weighted
indicators, is used to distinguish between the poor and nonpoor. If the household deprivation score is
33.3 percent or greater, that household (and everyone in it) is multidimensionally poor. Households with a
deprivation score greater than or equal to 20 percent but less than 33.3 percent are vulnerable to or at
risk of becoming multidimensionally poor. Due to a lack of relevant data, the MPI has not been calculated
for this country.
Male
82.3
81.6
95.2
74.1
75.3
Download
Related flashcards

Statistical theory

24 cards

Information theory

28 cards

Colossal statues

38 cards

Statistical software

79 cards

Create Flashcards