Name: __________________________ Endangered Species Notes (Section 1.14: pgs. 72 – 81) ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT (ESA) A National law passed in 1973 that protects species that are in danger of extinction. Endangered Species Threatened Species Candidate Species Goal of the ESA- To boast populations to a ________________ level. In order to achieve the goal, each species must have a ______________ ____________ that determines what it needs to be delisted. HOW DOES THE ESA WORK? The best way to protect a species is usually through protecting habitat vital to its existence known as ___________ ____________ (Determined by the Dept. of Interior) Once a species is listed, no branch of government can proceed with a project that might _______ the organism. Status of a species is review by the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Examples of species under ESA: o California condor, Florida panther, gray wolf, manatee Some animals are in captive breeding programs (animals breed in a human protected environments to increase the population) o California condor, black footed ferret. CHANGES TO ESA Under ESA, a project may not take place that can harm a protected organism or its __________ __________; however, many federal projects are __________ to continue. o EX. Snail Darter and Tellico Dam (pgs. 73 and 74) o EX. Desert Tortoise (pg. 80) ESA is a powerful land law which has been __________ to stop unwanted development. ESA _____ require a balancing of species protection with economic development. ESA amended in 1982, which allows for incidental takes (define) through an HCP (define) o Incidental Takeso Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP)- ESA: THE NUMBERS Over _________ species protected by the ESA. 9 species listed have gone extinct. 15 on the list have completely recovered. o Examples: 256 candidate species waiting to be listed due to lack of time and money (there may be many more out there) 34 went __________ during the 80’s waiting to be listed CRITICISM OF ESA 1. 2. 3. Cal. Condor - $25 mil Spotted Owl - $16.8 mil. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ENDANGERMENT? 1) Loss of Habitat (main cause) - as the human population grows, there is less habitat for all other species. Example: American crocodile 2) Human exploitation - hunting, trapping, etc. Example: wolf, ocelot. Poaching - illegal hunting, is a problem in other countries (lions, tigers, elephants) 3) Introduced species A) Out compete for space and resources B) Overgrazing by livestock C) Disease carried by other organisms * Extinction is a natural process but greatly accelerated by humans.