apa style guide - University College

…Ready. Set. Cite.
Last, F. M. (Year Published) Book. City, State: Publisher.
Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
Whole e-book:
Author, A. (date). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
Author, A. (date). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx
Chapter in an e-book:
Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved from
Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). doi:xxxxxxxxxx
BarackObama. (2009a, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative
to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020:
http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. Retrieved from
Barack Obama. (2009b, October 9). Humbled.
[Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php?
Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video
[Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
Journal Articles & Periodicals,
Abb, J. (2010). An interdisciplinary approach to preparing early intervention
and community collaborative initiative. Teacher Education and Special Education,
33(2), 131-142. doi:10.1177/0888406409357546
Magazine Article - publication date includes month, day and year
Novak, M. (2001, September 3). The Stem-Cell Slide. National Review, 53(17), 17-18.
Newspaper Article- publication date includes month, day, and year, no volume or issue number
Pincus, W. (2001, August 25). Panel asked to defer anti-leak bill hearing. The Washington Post, p. A4.
Date for journals may include month and year or just the year
Date for magazine and newspaper articles may include day, month and year
If pagination is continuous throughout the volume of a journal, issue number may be omitted from
Demystifying APA Numbers and Abbreviations
Numbers: Words vs. Numerals
1. Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above, and use words to express numbers below 10 (see sections
4.31–4.32, pp. 111–112).
This general rule was altered slightly from the fifth to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. The fifth
edition required that when numbers below 10 are grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above within
the same paragraph, all numbers so grouped would be expressed in numerals. However, per the sixth edition,
the general rule holds regardless of items that are grouped for comparison. So, it’s now fine to say, “Of the
snakes, 13 were poisonous and nine were harmless garter snakes.”
2. Use numerals to express units of time, dates, ages, and numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered
series (see section 4.32, p. 112).
This general rule about using numerals in these contexts is the same as in the fifth edition. Note two related
changes, however:
The fifth edition specified that numerals should be used when discussing numbers of subjects or
participants in an experiment. The sixth edition does not contain that rule, so the general rule about
expressing numbers 10 and above with numerals and below 10 with words holds. Correct usage per
the sixth edition would be, “The control group contained 17 participants, nine of whom were female
and eight of whom were male.”
There is also a new exception in the sixth edition—that words should be used to express units of time
when those units are approximate: “It took the rats about three seconds to discover the new food
When is it appropriate to use abbreviations?
To maximize clarity, APA prefers that authors use abbreviations sparingly. Although abbreviations are
sometimes useful for long, technical terms in scientific writing, communication is usually garbled rather than
clarified if, for example, an abbreviation is unfamiliar to the reader.
Some abbreviations may not be in the dictionary but appear frequently in the journal for which you are
writing. Although probably well understood by many readers, these abbreviations should still be explained
when first used.
 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
 conditional stimulus (CS)
 intertrial interval (ITI)
 consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC)
 short-term memory (STM)
 reaction time (RT)
Do not use the abbreviations S, E, or O for subject, experimenter, and observer.
APA Style® does permit the use of abbreviations that appear as word entries (i.e., that are not labeled abbr) in
Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Such abbreviations do not need explanation in text.
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