Eco bio recovery test

Chapter 13 & 14 Unit Test
1. A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area is called a(n)
a. community.
b. population.
c. biome.
d. ecosystem.
2. Herbivores are which of the following?
a. producers
b. secondary consumers
c. primary consumers
d. decomposers
3. Which phrase best describes biodiversity?
a. the number of individuals in an ecosystem
b. the amount of biomass in an ecosystem
c. the amount of available energy in an ecosystem
d. the number of species in an ecosystem
4. Organisms that feed on dead or decaying matter are called
a. herbivores.
b. carnivores.
c. omnivores.
d. detritivores.
5. What do all the biotic and abiotic factors in a given area make up?
a. a habitat
b. a community
c. an ecosystem
d. a population
6. Which of the following parts of the picture below is an example of a biotic factor?
a. sunlight
b. soil
c. deer
d. river
7. Which process is part of the hydrologic cycle?
a. nitrification
b. evaporation
c. decomposition
d. ammonification
8. Which model shows the number of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem?
a. biomass pyramid
b. food web
c. pyramid of numbers
d. food chain
9. Which of the following provide most of the energy in ecosystems?
a. keystone species
b. carnivores
c. generalists
d. producers
10. Almost all autotrophs get their energy from
a. sunlight.
b. hydrothermal pools.
c. decaying matter.
d. producers.
11. A major regional or global community of organisms is called
a. an ecosystem.
b. b. a biome.
c. c. a species.
d. d. a population.
12. List three heterotrophs shown in the food web above.
13. Name one specialist shown in the diagram.
14. What is the sequence: rosebush → rabbit → hawk ……an example of?
15. If caterpillars were removed from the food web, how would the snake population be affected?
16. What do the arrows in Figure 13.3 represent?
17. List all of the heterotrophs shown in the diagram.
18. What type of pyramid diagram is shown above?
19. What is the term for the trophic level labeled B in the diagram?
20. Which trophic level shown in the diagram has the most available energy?
21. How does this type of diagram differ from a biomass pyramid?
22. Why is a pyramid or triangle, like the one shown, often used to represent energy distribution in an
23. Which two processes in the carbon cycle are also parts of the oxygen cycle?
a. combustion and respiration
c. combustion and decay
b. photosynthesis and decay
d. photosynthesis and respiration
24. Which of the following can be both primary and secondary consumers?
a. herbivores
b. carnivores
c. omnivores
d. detritivores
25. Which statement is true of producers?
a. They consume most of the biomass in ecosystems.
b. They fix most of the nitrogen in ecosystems.
c. They produce most of the carbon dioxide in ecosystems.
d. They provide most of the energy in ecosystems.
26. What are two processes by which autotrophs make food?
a. chemosynthesis and photosynthesis
c. chemosynthesis and decomposition
b. photosynthesis and respiration
d. decomposition and combustion
27. Through what process is carbon mostly taken up in during the carbon cycle?
a. Water Exchange
b. Photosynthesis
c. Shell Formation
d. Cellular Respiration
28. The mantella frog and poison dart frog occupy similar niches in similar habitats in different parts of the
world. Because of this, they are considered to be
a. competitors.
c. interacting populations.
b. the same species.
d. ecological equivalents.
29. Hawks and foxes compete to eat field mice. This is a form of
a. interspecific competition.
c. intraspecific predation.
b. competitive exclusion.
d. random dispersion.
30. What word or phrase would be most appropriate opposite “Commensalism” under “Organism 2”?
FIG. 14.1
a. may die over time
b. neither benefits nor is harmed
c. benefits
d. is harmed
31. Which of these is an example of parasitism?
a. A lion defends its territory.
b. A squirrel stores food in a tree hole.
c. A leech feeds on a host’s blood.
d. A polar bear kills and eats a seal.
32. To measure population density, you must divide the number of individuals living in a defined space by the
a. perimeter of the area.
c. birth and death rates.
b. area of the space.
d. carrying capacity.
33. Which of the following will increase the size of a population?
a. emigration and deaths
c. emigration and births
b. immigration and deaths
d. immigration and births
34. Which of the following is a density-dependent limiting factor?
a. unusual weather
c. human activities
b. unusual weather
d. competition
35. The European red squirrel population is declining due to competition with the North American gray squirrel.
Most likely, what will eventually happen to the red squirrel?
a. It will win its competition with the gray squirrel.
b. It will be an ecological equivalent of the gray squirrel.
c. It will become extinct.
d. It will move to a different community.
36. A herd of caribou has more births than deaths and more immigration than emigration. What will most likely
happen to the size of the herd?
a. It will increase.
c. It will increase ,and then decrease.
b. It will decrease.
d. It will stay the same.
37. Parasitism is most similar to
a. interspecific competition.
b. mutualism.
c. commensalism.
d. predation.
38. Fourteen beavers live in a pond with an area of 2 square kilometers. What is the population density of the
a. 7 beavers per square kilometer
c. 16 beavers per square kilometer
b. 7 beavers per square kilometer
d. 28 beavers per square kilometer
39. Which of these is a density-independent limiting factor?
a. any increase in population
c. a decrease in predators
b. the introduction of a parasite
d. an earthquake
40. Many endoparasites lack complex digestive systems. Which is the most likely reason for this?
a. Endoparasites eat only plants, which are easy to digest.
b. Endoparasites do not usually kill their hosts.
c. Endoparasites feed on food already digested by the host.
d. Endoparasites live only inside their hosts, not outside.
41. What might happen if an organism with type III survivorship were introduced into a new environment with
no predators?
a. It would become extinct.
c. Its population would increase rapidly.
b. Its survivorship would change to type I.
d. Its birth rate would decrease.
42. The greenhouse effect is mainly associated with which cycle?
a. nitrogen
b. carbon
c. water
d. sodium
43. The 10% rule of energy in a food web says
producers only use 10% of the sun’s energy
90% of the energy goes to the next level in the food web and 10% is lost as heat
10% of energy goes to the next level in a food web and 90% is lost as heat
10% of the energy moves from carnivore to herbivore
44. What type of population growth does the graph above show?
45. What will eventually happen to the yeast population as more and more sugar gets consumed?
46. After how many hours does the yeast population shown in Figure 14.3 reach carrying capacity?
47. What amount of yeast constitutes the carrying capacity shown in Figure 14.3?
48. What is the amount of yeast in Figure 14.3 at the 6-hour mark?
49. Describe what is happening to the yeasts at time 8 hours.
50. What is the moose population in 1981?
51. Is the moose population in 1981 relatively high or low?
52. Is the wolf population in 1981 increasing or decreasing?
53. Why is the wolf population in 1981 changing the way it is?
54. Humans are part of complex ecosystems. Describe a few components of the ecosystem in which you live.
In your answer:
a. identify 3 abiotic factors and their roles in the ecosystem
b. identify 3 biotic factors and their roles in the ecosystem
55. Coyotes and wolves both live in North America. They share similar habitats and feed on similar prey.
However, coyotes have adapted to live near urban areas while wolves have not. How does this relate to each
species’ ecological niche? Are they ecological equivalents? Explain why or why not. In your answer:
 define ecological niche and ecological equivalents
 explain your answer in terms of the definition of ecological equivalents and
ecological niche
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