Section 5

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DESCRIBE THE FOUR-POINT STRATEGY FOR
PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS.
-Map global ecosystems and create an inventory of the species contained in each of t
hem and the ecosystem services they provide.
-Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems and species, with emphasis on
protecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem services.
-Seek to restore as many degraded ecosystems as possible.
-Make development biodiversity-friendly by providing significant financial incentives
(such as tax breaks and write-offs) and technical help to private landowners who
agree to help protect endanger ecosystems
WHAT IS MEANT BY BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT?
Biodiversity hotspots are areas that are very rich in plant species and are found
no where else in the world. These hotspots are in great danger of extinction and
suffer greatly from ecological disruption, caused by rapid human growth. These
hotspots are set aside as an emergency action strategy to preserve as much of
the world's remaining biodiversity as possible.
WHAT IS MILLENIUM ECOSYSTEM
ASSESSMENT? WHAT WERE THE FINDINGS?
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is a 4-year study by more than 1,000
experts from 95 countries released by the U.N. in 2005. It identified key
ecological services that provide numerous ecological and economic benefits. The
findings of this study were that human activities abuse about 62% of the world's
natural services, found in various ecosystems around the world. This study
helped to create guidelines to help sustain the world's ecosystems.
DESCRIBE THE METHODS OF RESTORATION,
REHABILITATION, REPLACEMENT, AND
ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEMS.
Restoration: returning a particular degraded habitat or ecosystem to a condition as
similar as possible to its natural state.
Rehabilitation: turning a degrades ecosystem into a functional or useful ecosystem
without trying to removing pollutants and replanting to reduce soil erosion in
abandoned mining sites and landfills and in clear-cut forests.
Replacement: replacing a degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem. For
example, a productive pasture or tree plantation may replace a degraded forest.
Artificial ecosystems: For example, creating artificial wetlands to help reduce
flooding or to treat sewage.
RESTORATION
REHABILITATION
REPLACEMENT
ARTIFICIAL
DESCRIBE THE FOUR-POINT STRATEGY FOR
CARRYING OUT MOST FORMS OF ECOLOGICAL
RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION.
- Identify what caused the degradation (such as pollution, farming, overgrazing, minin
g, or invasive species).
-
Stop the abuse by eliminating or sharply reducing these factors. This would includ
e removing toxic soil pollutants, adding nutrients to depleted soil, adding new top
soil, preventing fires, and controlling or eliminating disruptive nonnative species.
- If necessary, reintroduce species- especially pioneer, keystone, and foundation speci
es- to help restore natural ecological processes, as was done with wolves in the Y
ellowstone ecosystem.
- Protect the area from further degradation.
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