DESCRIBE THE FOUR-POINT STRATEGY FOR PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS. -Map global ecosystems and create an inventory of the species contained in each of t hem and the ecosystem services they provide. -Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems and species, with emphasis on protecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem services. -Seek to restore as many degraded ecosystems as possible. -Make development biodiversity-friendly by providing significant financial incentives (such as tax breaks and write-offs) and technical help to private landowners who agree to help protect endanger ecosystems WHAT IS MEANT BY BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT? Biodiversity hotspots are areas that are very rich in plant species and are found no where else in the world. These hotspots are in great danger of extinction and suffer greatly from ecological disruption, caused by rapid human growth. These hotspots are set aside as an emergency action strategy to preserve as much of the world's remaining biodiversity as possible. WHAT IS MILLENIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT? WHAT WERE THE FINDINGS? The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is a 4-year study by more than 1,000 experts from 95 countries released by the U.N. in 2005. It identified key ecological services that provide numerous ecological and economic benefits. The findings of this study were that human activities abuse about 62% of the world's natural services, found in various ecosystems around the world. This study helped to create guidelines to help sustain the world's ecosystems. DESCRIBE THE METHODS OF RESTORATION, REHABILITATION, REPLACEMENT, AND ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEMS. Restoration: returning a particular degraded habitat or ecosystem to a condition as similar as possible to its natural state. Rehabilitation: turning a degrades ecosystem into a functional or useful ecosystem without trying to removing pollutants and replanting to reduce soil erosion in abandoned mining sites and landfills and in clear-cut forests. Replacement: replacing a degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem. For example, a productive pasture or tree plantation may replace a degraded forest. Artificial ecosystems: For example, creating artificial wetlands to help reduce flooding or to treat sewage. RESTORATION REHABILITATION REPLACEMENT ARTIFICIAL DESCRIBE THE FOUR-POINT STRATEGY FOR CARRYING OUT MOST FORMS OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION. - Identify what caused the degradation (such as pollution, farming, overgrazing, minin g, or invasive species). - Stop the abuse by eliminating or sharply reducing these factors. This would includ e removing toxic soil pollutants, adding nutrients to depleted soil, adding new top soil, preventing fires, and controlling or eliminating disruptive nonnative species. - If necessary, reintroduce species- especially pioneer, keystone, and foundation speci es- to help restore natural ecological processes, as was done with wolves in the Y ellowstone ecosystem. - Protect the area from further degradation.