Chemistry Unit 8 Review Name:________________________ Date:__________________ QUANTUM THEORY Periodic Table: “Father of the periodic table” Mendeleev – ordered by atomic mass Moseley – revised – ordered by atomic number Periodic Table Vocab: periodic law groups periods know names for groups 1, 2, 3-12, 17 and 18 Development of Quantum Theory: 1. How did Planck, Bohr, Einstein, de Broglie, Heisenberg and Schrödinger contribute to Quantum Mechanics? 2. In what ways was Bohr’s model incorrect? 3. What is meant by quantized energy levels? EMR Spectrum: Calculations involving EMR: 4. Identify λν = c as either a direct or inverse mathematical relationship. 5. Do the same for E = hν 6. Write a mathematical equation for the relationship between energy and wavelength. 7. Identify the equation for (c) as either direct or inverse. 8. How many Joules of energy are contained in a photon with λ = 550 nm? How many kJ of energy is this? Quantum Numbers: 9. What do quantum numbers indicate? 10. Complete the table: symbol name possible values what it tells about electron cloud n ℓ m sublevel quantum number magnetic quantum number s example: px, py, pz +1/2 and -1/2 spin of electron Orbital Filling Notation: 11. neon 12. manganese Electron Configuration Notation (you may use noble gas shorthand): 13. molybdenum 14. einsteinium 15. nickel 16. antimony Lewis Dot Structures: Ca S 17. Why do Lewis Dot structures only include the valence electrons? 18. aufbau Principle: 19. Pauli Exclusion Principle: 20. Hund’s Rule: 21. Explain why chromium and copper do not follow the aufbau principle: 22. How many orbitals in the: s sublevel: shape? p sublevel: shape? d sublevel: f sublevel: 23. What element has a valance electron configuration of 4s2 4p4 ? Periodic Trends: Using the general trends; circle the correct answer: 1. Which has a larger atomic radius, K or Mn? 2. Which is the larger atom, W or Os? 3. Which atom is smaller, Cd or Y? 4. Which atom has a lower ionization energy, Rb or Li? 5. Which atom has a higher electronegativity, N or As? 6. Which has a smaller atomic radius, I or Cl? 7. What atom would have the largest radius? _____ 8. What atom would have the lowest ionization energy? _____ 9. What atom would have the highest electronegativity? _____ 10. Non-metals generally have ____________ atomic radii than metals. 11. Which atom in period 3 would have the lowest electronegativity? 12. Which atom in group 7 would have the highest ionization energy? 13. Which alkaline earth metal has the largest ionic radius? 14. All atoms want to have 8 valence electrons in their highest principal energy level. This is called the ________ rule. 15. Which noble gas has 2 valence electrons? ____ Why does it not follow the octet rule like the rest of the noble gases? 16. Which alkali metal (not including H) has the highest ionization energy? 17. Which d-block metal has the highest electronegativity? 18. ______________ are larger than their neutral atoms. Are they usually metals or nonmetals? 19. ______________ are smaller than their neutral atoms. Are they usually metals or nonmetals? 20. The _____________ metals are the most reactive of all the metals. 21. The ______________ are the most reactive non-metals. 22. The _________________ are unreactive because they have 8 valence electrons. 23. Fluorine is 1 electron away from obtaining ____________________ configuration. 24. What element is in group 6, period 5? _____ 25. Write the symbol of an element that is not a good conductor of heat and electricity. _____ 26. Write the symbol of the element that is in period 6, group 10. _____ 27. Metals _________ electrons to form positively charged ions called ________. 28. Non-metals _________ electrons to form negatively charged ions called ________. 29. Why does the F1- ion easily form and the N3- ion rarely form?