EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) Topic 19 Illustration Identified Factors Male Diagnosed Fragile X Syndrome Has behaviour problem Parents insist on best for their child Figure 1. A child with Fragile X Syndrome A. How do issues of disability relate to Human Rights and Social Justice in the education context? Australian Human Rights Commission states that around one in five Australians has a disability (2015). However, there are many significant barriers when it comes to take parts in daily activities such as work, sport, and study (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2015). Under the Commission, the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) was formed in 1992 which protects individuals with disability across Australia from unfair treatment in many parts of public life. The Act makes disability discrimination unlawful and promotes equal rights, equal opportunity and equal access for people with disabilities (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2015). This Social Justice ensures the equity amongst every Australians despite their condition. In education context, DDA states that a person with a disability has a right to study at any educational institution in the same way as any other student (1992). This includes all public and private educational institutions, primary and secondary schools and tertiary institutions (DDA, 1992). There are few implications for educators when promoting Human Rights and Social Justice in education sector. The first implication is that educators are expected to offer a person with a disability the same educational opportunities as everyone else when he/she meets the necessary entry requirements of a school or college (DDA, 1992). Furthermore, the decisions that the educators make must base upon a person's ability to achieve the essential requirements of the course instead of making judgement according to assumptions about what a person can or cannot do because of a disability. The DDA ensures the rights and social justice of people with disabilities as it protects the area of admission and access to education while ensuring their rights and justice from any form of harassment in education sector. EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) B. How have issues of Human Rights and Social Justice informed the principles of inclusive schooling for students with special needs? The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (2008) states that Australia, as a nation, values the central role of education in “building a democratic, equitable and just society” p.4). The first educational goal for young Australians is to ensure that “Australian schooling promotes equity and excellence” (2008, p.7). This means that all Australian schools must be inclusive and provide all students with access to high-quality of schooling with equity and just, free from any form of discrimination such as gender, ethnicity and disability. This provision of access to education is in line and supports the DDA 1992 as mentioned in previous section (Section A). The issues of Human Rights and Social Justice informed the practices and principles of inclusive schooling for students with special needs. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Salamanca 1994 underpinned the inclusive education framework today. The fundamental principle of inclusive schooling is that "... Schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, emotional, social, linguistic or other conditions" (Salamanca Framework for Action, Article 3, 1994). This means that it is crucial that schools acknowledge and act in response to students’ diversity of needs and learning styles (Ashman & Elkins, 2012) through careful design of curricula, organisation and teaching strategies. A male student with Fragile X Syndrome often associated with a condition of mental retardation. However, from a socio-constructivist perspective, this impairment can be supported through inclusive schooling by social interactions between teachers-students and students-students. It has an impact on the modification of meanings when teachers and peers exercise their influence over an area known as "zone of proximal development" (Vygotsky, 1985). Thus in order to have a thoughtful curricula, organisation and teaching strategies, it is a necessity for teachers to engage, enable, prepare, encourage and challenge all students through maximising their individual talents and capabilities. Consequently, it will establish enjoyment for lifelong learning and promote a fair and just society that values diversity (BosTES, 2002). EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) C. What is the impact of having a disability? What might be the different perspectives of the stakeholders involved in the inclusion of students with special needs? Stakeholders Student with special needs Two benefits Parent/s of student with special needs Able to have enriched growing and learning. Able to have role models who can facilitate communication, social and adaptive behaviours. Have the opportunity to make new friends and share new experiences which leads to greater acceptance from their peers in and out of school communities. Increase their self-respect and self-esteem as they start to make connection with regular education students and teachers. (Rationale for and benefits of Inclusion, 2004). Parents are able to see the positive growth of their child’s social, cognitive, language and emotional development in a regular classroom. Parent/s of student with special need who are involved in inclusion program fruit the higher achievement, more positive attitude and better attendance of their child. (Parental Involvement in Inclusive Education, 2015) Classmates Allow students to be more accepting of and other differences among individuals. students Able to develop important skills necessary for their adult lives – including leadership, mentoring, tutoring, self-empowerment and improved their own self-esteem. (Rationale for and benefits of Inclusion, 2004). Two possible concerns limitations Socialisation part of their education takes precedence over their academic part of their education Not having a special education classroom where there is less distractions, more one-to-one interactions and an individualised academic program, may hinder the maximum benefit of their education. (Education Integration, 1998). Parents may not always agree upon the decisions made concerning their child or the school community. Parents of students with special needs are not always represented in the Parent Advisory Councils and School Planning Councils due to various reasons. (Parental Involvement in Inclusive Education, 2015) Inclusive classroom typically more active than non-inclusive classroom due to few factors such as students with special needs will be in and out of the classroom at various times, one or more lead teachers. Consequently, it will create distractions and regular students may unable to concentrate. It may create a degree of jealousy or resentment among the regular students and students with special needs due to ‘special’ treatment that the teachers give – for example, more one-to-one interaction, modified assignments or test, or their workload is smaller than their peers. (Preparing for Inclusion, 2004). EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) Teacher Principal Creates awareness and appreciation of individual differences in all students – utilising students’ strength that can be built upon to create meaningful school learning experience. Allows teachers to learn new teaching skills and strategies that can help all of their students Allows teachers to develop team work skills such as teach collaborative problem solving and acquire different ways of perceiving challenges. Not given proper training, enough planning time throughout the day or appropriate forum for teachers to voice their opinions, concerns and suggestions Some teachers realised that it is difficult to create inclusive classroom without the help of others (e.g. teacher’s aide). However, regular classroom teacher may experience reluctance and discomfort as they need to give up control of their classroom. (Benefits of Inclusive Classroom for all, 1999). Principals who are familiar with the research literature and know that inclusive services and supports produce educational benefits for students with and without disabilities, teachers, and families. Effective principals establish collaborative teams, bringing together key stakeholders who represent different perspectives and roles in the school community. (Forest & Pearpoint, 2004). Principal’s leadership pedagogies may hinder inclusive practices when the principal is yet to have leadership based on “reculturing” and transformational leadership pedagogies and philosophy (Schmidt & Venet, 2012). Gives unrealistic expectation through lack of equity in designing “at risk”, “pass” and “high achieving” standards. (Principals of Inclusive Schooling, 2005) (Principals facing inclusive school or integration, 2012). EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) E. What are some resources to inform teachers? In their journal article, Behavioural intervention for problem behaviour in children with Fragile X Syndrome, Moskowitz, Carr and Durand (2011), focuses on the study of how children with Fragile X Syndrome behave and interact with their peers as well as possible intervention methods to guide any misbehaviour performed. Horner and Carr (1997) believed that the best intervention for problem behaviour with problem disabilities is creating individualized, multi-component intervention programs built on the results of ongoing functional assessment. The focus was placed on sleep disturbances, toileting issues, diverse problem behaviours, language difficulties, deficits in social interaction, eye contact, and increasing independence. They addressed these areas of concern by demonstrating that behavioural intervention can be effective in the assessment and treatment of problem behaviour in naturalistic settings which can also improve family quality of life. Three children were selected with Fragile X problem behaviour and observed through several steps, then collaborating with the mothers and tailoring multi-component intervention plans based on the functional assessment information obtained from baseline observations and parent interviews. Thereafter, parents were then trained on how to implement those strategies with their children. Training involved; providing the parent with a written PBS plan, providing the parent with routinespecific implementation checklists, in vivo modelling of interventions for the parent through direct interaction with the child, educating parents in the use of interventions, behavioural rehearsal and problem-solving discussions. Development of the intervention were then assessed and addressed accordingly with the correct treatment strategy which meant removing reinforcement for problem behaviour or providing reinforcement for alternative behaviour. Intervention plans were then designed specifically to cater for each individual child cooperatively with the parents. Intervention sessions occurred over a period of 6 months. Some of the interventions meant changing and manipulating setting events, increasing predictability by abiding to consistent schedules. The results demonstrated improvement such as 93% to 97%.It is encouraging that the results of this study may inform teachers’ teaching practices by implementing natural intervention to reduce problem behaviour in children with Fragile X Syndrome in natural settings and variety of natural contexts. EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) F. Reflection on personal learning and future teaching context Reflecting back critically on this assignment enables me to put an emphasis on my collaborative work with my partner and focus child diagnosed with problem behaviour and fragile X syndrome. Through my work together I was able to educate myself positively about students with this diagnosis. My analysis of the journal article behaviour intervention for problem behaviour in children with fragile X syndrome (Moskowitz, Carr, Durand, 2011),allowed me as an educator to acquire knowledge and a positive outlook that we as educators can provide constructive strategies to assist students with these behaviours. It is encouraging that the results of these papers suggest that behavioural interventions can be implemented by natural intervention to reduce problem behavior in children with fragile X syndrome in natural settings in a variety of natural contexts. As educators there are numerous resources, websites, literature on intervention ideas, program planning and support for teachers who work with inclusive classrooms. Some of the strategies that can be used in the classroom are: seating arrangement, the type of chair or desk used, movement in classroom, noise and visual distractions, seating arrangement (small groups), observe styles of learner and teacher, social interactions and levels of understanding/processing, collaborative work with parents. Therefore as teachers we need to be well trained in being able to implement; modelling, rules, routines, cooperative learning, differential reinforcement used appropriately, be positive, predictable, orderly environment, collate class rules together with students and individual behaviour change strategies implemented appropriately. Teachers must be able to accept ownership of the process and a commitment to all children in a class. In addition Florian (2012) and Smith and Tyler (2011) state that teachers must be highly skilled practitioner. Thus this must be evident on a day to day bases. This is also supported by Jordan, Glen and McGhie-Richmond (2010) and Sharma (2012) by implicating that positive attitudes must be evident if inclusive education is to be successful, and teachers must believe that all students are capable of learning and contributing to the classroom community in positive ways. Therefore teachers need to be supported by highly trained teaching assistance as Stivers, Francis-Cooper and Straus (2008) suggest that the involvement of families is very important and essential for the success of a full inclusive education. Only working collaboratively with families will produce a definate success rate. Osberg and Biesta (2010) believe that flexible curriculum, individualized plans contribute to a successful program. This is also true as we need to tailor individualized programs to each child to be able to fully satisfy their behavior. Current practice in inclusive education in Australia imply that all jurisdiction provide special schooling options for students with disabilities and to be able to access various schools across the country, to provide comprehensive range of pathways, maintain well developed policies to support inclusive practices, school support, procedures and schooling in regular classrooms to be considered as the best option whenever possible (Inclusive Education for students with disability. 2013) My partnership with Ratna was a successful experience. Our first meeting was a productive one as we were able to divide the work into two parts, both agreeing on the decision. Ratna chose the first half and myself the second. Thus further following with several discussions about our parts, two to three meetings, communicating through verbal and technological (email and mobile) communication. The final result was put together with both reading and providing our input. Furthermore this partnership proved to be a constructive experience in which we both gave 100% input in this project. This partnership is evidence and provides groundwork for future collaborative EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) work between colleagues, families and students which relates to the above article that collaborative work with families and PBS can stipulate positive interventions in supporting and improving problem behaviour. EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) References A child with Fragile X Syndrome [Image]. (2015). Retrieved from http://perinatology.com/images/frax3.gif Ashman, A. & Elkins, J. (2012). Education for Inclusion and Diversity.(4th ed). NSW: Pearson. Australian Human Rights Commission. (2015). D.D.A Guide: Getting an Education. Retrieved from http://www.humanrights.gov.au/dda-guide-getting-education Berg, S.L. (2004). The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities into Regular Education Classroom. Retrieved from http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2005/2005bergs.pdf Benefits of inclusive classrooms for all. (1999). Retrieved from http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html Board of Studies Teaching & Educational Standards (BosTES). (2002). K-10 Curriculum Framework. Retrieved from http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabuses/syllabusdevelopment/pdf_doc/k-10-curriculum-framework.pdf Education Integration. (1998). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/education/janjune98/specialed_3-24.html Florian L. (2012). Preparing teachers to work in inclusive classrooms: Key lessons for the professional development of teacher educators from Scotland’s Inclusive Practice Project. Journal of teacher Education, 63(4), 245-255. Retrieved from; http://jte.sagepub.com/content/63/4/275.abstract EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) Forest, M. & Pearpoint, J. (2004). Inclusion! The Bigger Picture. Retrieved from http://www.inclusion.com/artbiggerpicture.html Forman, P. (2011). Inclusion in action. (3rd ed). VIC: Thomson. Inclusion BC. (2015). Parental Involvement in Inclusive Education. Retrieved from http://www.inclusionbc.org/inclusive-education-parental-involvement Jordan, A., Glenn C. & McGhie-Richmond, D. (2010). The supporting effective teaching (SET) project: the relationship of inclusive teaching practices to teachers’ beliefs about disability and ability and about their roles as teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(2), 259-266. Retrieved from https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.elsevier-de0654b5-aa923d00-9285-fd68ee6d83e6 Kid Sense. (2015). Child Development Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.childdevelopment.com.au/hand-dexterity-fine-motor-skills/177 Makaiau, A.S., & Miller, C. (2012). The Philosopher’s Pedagogy. Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), 44(1), 8-19. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1005643.pdf Ministerial Council for Education: Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational _goals_for_young_australians.pdf Moskowitz J.L., Carr G.E., & Durand, M.V. (2011). Behavioural Intervention for Problem Behaviour in Children with Fragile X Syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 116(6), 457-478. Retrieved from http://www.aaiddjournals.org.ezproxy2.acu.edu.au/doi/full/10.1352/1944-7558-116.6.457 EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) National Institute for Urban School Improvement. (2005). Principals for Inclusive Schools. Retrieved from http://www.urbanschools.org/pdf/principals.inclusive.LETTER.pdf NSW Government: Health Centre for Genetics Education. (2015). Genetic Support Groups. Retrieved from http://www.genetics.edu.au/Genetic-conditions-support-groups/genetic-supportgroups Parent Portal. (2015). Syndromes & Conditions – Fragile X. Retrieved from http://parentportal.activ.asn.au/syndromes_conditions.cfm?level=third_level&mode=view_ w&synd_cond=fragx&synd_cond_name=Fragile%20X Preparing for Inclusion. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/preparing/parents.html Raising Children Network. (2014). Developing Literacy. Retrieved from http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/developing_literacy.html/context/1218 Rationale for and benefits of inclusion. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.palaestra.com/Inclusion2.html Schmidt, S. & Venet, M. (2012). Principals Facing Inclusive Schooling or Integration. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(1), 217. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy2.acu.edu.au/ps/i.do?&id=GALE|A288627530&v=2.1&u=ac uni&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1 Smith, D. & Tyler, N. (2011). Effective inclusive education: Equipping education professionals with necessary skills and knowledge. Springler Link, 41(3), 323-339. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.ezproxy1.acu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s11125-011-9207-5 EDFD447 – Diversity in the Classroom Assessment 1 Dijana Jovcevska (S00147602) Stivers, J., Francis-Cropper, L. & Straus, M. (2008). Educating families about inclusive education: A month-by-month guide for teachers of inclusive classes. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(1), 10-17. Retrieved from http://isc.sagepub.com.ezproxy1.acu.edu.au/content/44/1/10 The Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY). ( 2013). Inclusive Education for Students with Disability. Retrieved from http://www.aracy.org.au/publicationsresources/command/download_file/id/246/filename/Inclusive_education_for_students_wit h_disability_-_A_review_of_the_best_evidence_in_relation_to_theory_and_practice.pdf The Fragile X Association of Australia. (2013). What is Fragile X Syndrome. Retrieved from http://fragilex.org.au/what-is-fragile-x/ United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1994). Salamanca Framework for Action: Article 3. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/sne/ Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.