Universal Primary Education Bratislava, May 2007 Susie Miles School of Education, University of Manchester [email protected] Enabling Education Network - EENET www.eenet.org.uk Overview • • • • • What is education? International Frameworks Millennium Development Goal: Education Individual v social model of education Promoting inclusive learning environments for all, Oriang, Kenya • Key issues in making education work • Definitions of inclusive education • UN Convention: the right to be included. What is education? International frameworks 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990 Jomtien, Thailand – EFA Education for All 1993 UN Standard Rules (on Disability) 1994 Salamanca Statement 2000 Dakar, Senegal, EFA Conference & Millennium Development Goals 2002 Fast Track Initiative (for EFA) 2007 UN Convention on Disability Millennium Development Goals Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Indicators for Goal 2 • Net enrolment ratio in primary education • Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 • Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds. Does not respond, cannot learn Needs special teachers Needs special environment Has special needs Child as problem Needs special equipment Cannot get Is different from other children to school Teachers’ attitudes Poor quality training Lack of teaching aids and equipment Rigid methods, rigid curriculum Education system as problem Parents not involved Inaccessible environments Many drop-outs, many repeaters Teachers and schools not supported Physical access – Oriang, Kenya This log is the only bridge providing access to the nearest school. “Levelling” the school environment Teachers and pupils working to prevent soil erosion. The importance of good lighting This window has been enlarged to improve light quality. Inclusive learning environments Improved seating arrangements, collaborative learning, well lit classrooms, walls painted white. Accessible toilets? New toilets adapted for students and staff Special schools Economic empowerment Situation analysis Key Issues Early childhood development Policy development Inclusive learning environments Teacher education and development Child to Child School improvement Parent and community involvement EENET’s view of IE all children can learn inclusive education is a dynamic process which is constantly evolving differences in children, such as age, gender, ethnicity, language, disability, HIV and TB status, should be acknowledged and respected education structures, systems and methodologies should be developed to meet the needs of all children such developments should be seen as part of a wider strategy to promote an inclusive society progress need not be restricted by large class sizes or a shortage of material resources. Based on the Agra Conference, 1998 A UNESCO definition of inclusive education “Inclusive education starts from the belief that the right to education is a basic human right and the foundation for a more just society. Inclusive education takes the Education for All (EFA) agenda forward by finding ways of enabling schools to serve all children in their communities…. Inclusive education is concerned with all learners, with a focus on those who have traditionally been excluded from educational opportunities – such as learners with special needs and disabilities, children from ethnic and linguistic minorities”. UNESCO, 2001 Inclusive education - a right • Article 24 requires all signatories to ensure that all disabled children and young people can fully participate in the state education system and this should be an ‘inclusive system at all levels’. • This right is to be delivered within an inclusive primary and secondary education system, from which disabled people should not be excluded. • Reasonable accommodations should be provided for individual requirements and support provided in individualised programmes to facilitate their effective social and academic education.