Population and Growth Rates - University of Hawaii at Hilo


Population and Growth Rates

Exponential growth rate of human population and the Doubling Time

Limiters on population growth: farmland and food, non-food resources, carrying capacity of the earth?, large natural disasters and their effect on population

Current Population between 6 and 7 billion people.

CARRYING CAPACITY-ultimate sustainability of something (rivers for water and sediment, earth and people!)


Potentially renewable



Environmental Impact = # people x per capita resource use x degradation/pollution per unit

Earth Systems

Open, Closed, Isolated






Energy System

Feedback Mechanisms: Positive and Negative-characteristics of each

Reservoirs in Earth Systems

Flux, residence time (examples from hydrosphere, ocean water 2600 yrs, atmosphere 8 days, continent 400 years)

The Earth

Sources of Energy

Internal: Radioactive decay (by far the most important), gravity, solar

External: Solar (by far the most important), tides, gravity

Layers of the earth

Core/Mantle/Crust-names based on composition

Inner core/outer core/mesosphere/asthenosphere/lithosphere-names based on physical properties

Core made of Iron and Nickel

Mantle made of heavier silicates and oxides (Mg and Fe rich)

Crust made of lighter silicates and oxides

Oceanic and Continental Crust

Heat transfer and models of convection in the mantle, Temp. and Pressure changes

Composition of the earth and space

H and He are most abundant in the universe-formed from big bang-decrease with increasing atomic #.

Fe (iron) most abundant in the earth

Si and O most abundant in the crust + Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Mg, Ti =most of crust