28-HAZMAT - The Justice Academy

The section on HAZMAT was reviewed by the HAZMAT Discipline Chair and the Subject
Matter Expert (SME) listed below.
Adam Hamilton, President & CEO, Signature Science, ahamilton@signaturescience.com
Sergeant Robert A. Brown, San Antonio Police Department, rbrown@sanantonio.gov
Lieutenant Curtis L. Ruggles, Harris County Sheriff’s Office, Curtis_Ruggles@itc.co.harris.tx.us
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28. Hazardous Materials Awareness (6 hrs.)
Unit Goal: 28.1 To enable the student to safely and effectively perform the first-responder
role at a hazardous materials event.
28.1.1 Definitions
Defines the term “hazardous material” or HAZMAT
There are numerous definitions of hazardous materials or HAZMAT that should be reviewed and
discussed by the instructor.
The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) defines a hazardous material as: A
substance or material capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, or property when
transported in commerce. The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine
pollutants, elevated temperature materials, and materials designated as hazardous in the
Hazardous Materials Table (see 49 CFR 172.101).
The DOT has also defined a system for classifying hazardous materials. A hazard class is a
group of hazardous materials that share dangerous characteristics. The DOT has identified nine
hazard classes based on the dangers posed in transportation.
The instructor should review the nine hazard classes and explain the significance of hazard
classes to the law enforcement responder.
Reference to the most recent version of the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG).
28.1.2 Discusses the basic concepts of toxic materials, infectious materials, and ionizing
Types of Hazardous Materials
Define toxic materials
o Toxic Industrial Materials/Toxic Industrial Chemicals
o Agricultural Chemicals (pesiticides, insecticides, etc.)
o Chemical Warfare Agents (nerve agents, vesicants)
o Other Chemical Agents (riot control, irritants, etc.)
o Biological Toxins (Ricin, botulinum toxin, etc.)
o Describe differences between acute and chronic exposures
Define infectious materials
o Human Pathogens (define “pathogen” as a “disease-causing organism”)
 Bacteria (examples include anthrax [Bacillus anthracis], plague [Yersinia
pestis], etc.)
 Viruses (Smallpox [Variola Major], Bird Flu [H5N1], etc.)
o Plant and Animal Pathogens (instructor should explain economic significance and
need for avoiding the spread of plant and animal pathogens)
 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
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 Exotic Newcastle Disease (END)
 Classical Swine Fever (CSF)
 Boll Rot of Cotton
o Principals of Infection Control
 Define ionizing radiation and its types (instructor should describe applications and uses
of various ionizing radiation sources)
o Alpha
o Beta
o Gamma
o X-Ray
o Neutron
Routes of Exposure
 Inhalation
o Describe aerosols (dry and/or wet particles/droplets that behave like a gas)
o Describe respirable size range (1μ-10μ or 0.5μ-5μ)
 Absorption
o Skin (vulnerable to many chemicals but not to many biological threats unless
there is an open wound—see Injection)
o Eyes
o Mucous Membranes (nostrils, lips, etc.)
 Ingestion
o Primary (Eating/drinking contaminated product)
o Secondary (Transferring contaminated product to mouth, usually through an
inanimate object. Using the example of a ballpoint pen may work well for some
 Injection
o Puncture
o Cut/abrasion
o Insect/Pest (usually biological)
Basic Toxicology
 Terminology
o Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
o Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
o Lethal Concentration (LC50)
o Lethal Dose (LD50)
o Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Terminology
28.1.3 Describes the potential effects of a HAZMAT incident.
Potential Effects of a HAZMAT Incident
Health Impacts
 Death
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 Temporary impairment
 Permanent disability
 Psychological stress
 Post Traumatic Stress Disorders
Property and Environment Impacts
 Damage to potable water sources
 Loss of productive lands
 Loss/destruction of food products
 Inability to occupy or inhabit structures
Infrastructure Impacts
 Disruption of traffic and other modes of transportation
 Budget and resource strains on government and commercial entities
 Reduction in available services
 Overwhelmed health care system
28.1.4 Identify sources to obtain on-site information about hazardous materials being
On-Site Information
Warnings and Indicators
 Shipping manifests
 Placards (use group activity or homework to reinforce placard reading skills)
 Labels
 Driver, others involved in transportation of materials
 Witnesses
 Victims
 Texas Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (TLETS)
 Shipper at point-of-origin
28.1.5 Explanation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident
Command System (ICS).
National Incident Management System
Purpose/Motivation (HSPD-5)
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Benefits (unified approach, standardized command structure, emphasis on preparedness,
mutual aid, and resource management)
 Flexibility AND standardization
 Components
o Command and Management
o Preparedness
o Resource Management
o Communications and Information Management
o Supporting Technologies
o Ongoing Maintenance and Management
Incident Command System
 Purposes of the ICS
 Integrated organizational structure
 ICS as a part of NIMS
28.1.6 Recognize the basic procedures for safeguarding lives at a HAZMAT event.
Safeguarding Lives at a HAZMAT Incident
Initial Assessment and Response at an Incident
 Observations (Odors, noises, wind direction, placards, signs, etc.)
 Assessment (Hazard level, casualties, need for additional resources, etc.)
 Plan (Response, exit strategy, precautions, etc.)
 Communicate (Dispatch, casualties, good Samaritans, etc.)
 Respond (Establish perimeter, first aid, enable ICS, etc.)
Removing Citizens from the Affected Area
 Limit spread of contamination when moving people that are potentially contaminated
 Establish safe travel routes for the public
 Enforce perimeter security
Minimizing Health Hazards for Responders
 Stay outside of designated perimeter
 Remain upwind
 Wait for qualified assistance
Note: Instructor may prepare a display of clothing that is effective at an event, plus Self-Contained Breathing
Apparatus, gloves, etc. Also display articles that are NOT effective, e.g., lawn and garden dust mask, etc.
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28.1.7 Describes Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and decontamination.
Personal Protection and Decontamination
Levels of Personal Protection
 Level D (uniform, gloves, mask, etc.)
 Level C (air-purifying respirator, chemical resistant clothing, double-layered gloves, etc.)
 Level B (SCBA + Level C)
 Level A (fully-encapsulated)
Reasons for Changing Level of Personal Protection
 Moving Up (D to C, C to B, or B to A)
 Moving Down (A to B, B to C, or C to D)
Practical Guidelines for Law Enforcement First Responders
 Limitations of PPE availability and safe use (LE Responders should not use any PPE
above gloves and particulate/droplet mask except to escape from a hazardous situation or
at the direction of Incident Command)
 Safe donning and doffing of Nitrile gloves and particulate/droplet mask (demonstration)
 Practical decontamination (hand wipes, soap and water, antibacterial gels, antiviral wipes,
 Time, distance/direction, and shielding/barriers (Shorter times in a HAZMAT zone are
ALWAYS better. Distance and upwind location from a HAZMAT zone are ALWAYS
better. Shielding and barriers can be helpful.)
Decontamination Concepts
 “End the Exposure!”
o Remove
o Dilute
o Absorb
 Neutralize
 Isolate
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