# REGRESSION ANALYSIS ```REGRESSION ANALYSIS
GENERAL ASPECTS
Analysing quantitative variables is very useful to find out a function able
to synthesize the link existing among 2 or more variables.
IF a causal relationship is assumed – hence it is assumed that exist a
viariable Y (dependent) and one or more variables X (independent)hence we define:
Y  f (X ; )  
the regression equation of Y on X
- f is a generic function of X e parameters).
It can be linear or non linear.
 error component - arises from:
 measurement errors on Y – X not stochastic –
 not adequate specification of the function: (not all the
variables influencing Y are considered)
In an inferential context  is a random variable and as consequence Y is a
random variable as well
If f is linear
Y  a  bX  
 The simple linear regression mODELL
  (a; b)
SEE FIGURES 1 AND 2
 the multiple linear regression model
 IS A VECTOR
FUNCTIONAL FORM
The object is to find out the function f ( X ; ) giving the nearest theorical
yi  f ( xi ;  ) - estimates – to the empirical ( actually observed ) y i .
  is the estimate of 
f ( X ; ) can assume many forms:
f ( X ; )  e1 X
non linear
f ( X ; )  log( 1 X )  log(  2 X )
non linear - semi log -
f ( X ; )  1 log( X )   2 X 2
linear
f ( X ; )  1   2 X
linear
If the relationship between Y and X does not depend on :
Y  f ( X ; )
we have an exact relationship – descriptive -.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION: ASSUMPTIONS
The estimation procedure depends on the assumption we make about the
residuals .
We obtain desirable properties and a very simple method under the
following assumptions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Zero mean E(ui)= 0 for all i
Common variance – homoskedasticity – V(ui)= 2 for all i
independence: ui and uj are independent for any i and j
independence of xj :x an u are independent for all j
SEE FIGURE 3
 Under these assumptions, it can been shown that the least-squares
estimators of a and b are
BLUE: minimum –variance unbiased estimators.
For demonstration see: Maddala (1986) Econometrics, appendix B
5 Normality: in conjuction with 1,2 and 3 this implies that
ui  N(0, 2)
NOTE: This assumption is not requested for optimality of
estimators but to make confidence-interval statements and tests of
significance.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION: METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES
Let be
f ( X ; )  a  bX ;
  (a; b)
we need to find out a* e b* such as yi have a minimum distance from the
actual y i .
Distance: is the euclidean distance.
n

S (a; b)   yi  yi
i 1
   y
2
n
i 1
 a  bxi   min
2
i

we look for the linear function minimizing the sum of the squared
distances from each pair of actual values  xi , yi  and each pair of


theorical ones xi , yi given by the specified function.
SEE FIGURE 4
Considering that S(a;b) is not negative, it is enough to solve the system
(obtained equating to zero the two derivatives with respect to a and b):
n
S (a; b)
0
a
S (a; b)
0
b
 2 ( yi  a  bxi )  0
i 1
n
 2 ( yi  a  bxi ) xi  0
i 1
and we get
n

b 
 xi yi  nxy
i 1
n
 x 2  nx 2
i 1
i
a   y  b x

COV ( X , Y )
V (X )
NOTE: If we consider the relationship:
X  c  dY
then
d* 
COV ( X ,Y )
V (Y )

hence if

and
b*  d *
V ( X )b   V (Y )d *
V ( X )  1 and V (Y )  1
b*  d *
V (Y )
V (X )
GOODNESS OF FIT: R2
1 n 
( yi  y ) 2

n
R 2  i 1
V (Y )
V (Y ) 
1 n
1 n 
1 n
2
2
(
y

y
)

(
y

y
)

( yi  yi* ) 2



i
i
n i 1
n i 1
n i 1
I
II
III
I = total variance
II= proportion of total variance explained by X (or by the
regression model
III= residual variation (RSS)
R2  1
If
Then
Residual Variation
regression Variation

Total Variance
Total Variance
R2  1
 i  yi  yi  0
i
The squared coefficient of linear correlation lineare is equal to R2
TESTING
Because we do not know the exact values of parameters and we need to
make estimation, estimators produce random variables with a probability
distibutions
If assumption 5 is true, then
b*  N (b, 2 / (xi- x )2 )
(1)
a*  N (a, 2 (1/n + x 2/ (xi- x )2 )
(2)
but 2 is not known
taking into account that
 RSS/ 2 has a χ2 distribution with (n-2) degrees of freedom
 2 * = RSS /n-2 is an unbiased estimator for 2
 substituting 2 * for 2 in (1) and (2)
we get the estimated variances
NOTE: the square root of the variances of b and a are called:
STANDARD ERRORS (SE)
Then
(b* - b) / SE (b*) and (a* - a) / SE (a*) have each t distributions with
(n-2) degree of freedom:
t = b* - b /SE (b*)/√ xi2  t (n-2)
A t distribution is given by the ratio of a random variable with normal
standardized distribution and a random variable with a square root χ2
distribution divided by the degree of freedom
(b* - b) / SE (b*) : √RSS/ 2 :√n-2
For n &gt; 30 t can be approximated by a normal
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL for the parameter b
p= 0,95
b &plusmn; t0,025 SE /√ xi2
SEE FIGURES 5 AND 6
HYPOTHESIS TESTING for the parameter b
Ho: b= b0
H1: b ≠ b0
b* - b /SE (b*)/√ xi2  t (n-2)
b is assumed = 0
ANALYSIS OF RESIDUALS
Residuals
 i  yi  yi
SEE FIGURES 4 AND 7
Goal :
 Checking the existence of non- linear relationships : functional form
non appropriate
 Checking the existence of a constant variability around the regression
line : this ensure that the regression line is an appropriate synthesis of
the relationship.
 Finding outliers
PROPERTIES
n

i 1
i
n
x
0
i 1
i
i
0
da cui segue che
n

i 1
i
y 0
*
i
n
e
y
i 1
n
*
i
  yi
i 1
x:
Y:
Household income
Expenses for leisure
X
Tot
Aver
Y
X2
X*Y
1330000
1225000
1225000
1400000
1575000
1400000
1750000
2240000
1225000
1330000
1470000
2730000
120000
60000
30000
60000
90000
150000
240000
210000
30000
60000
120000
270000
159600000000
73500000000
36750000000
84000000000
141750000000
210000000000
420000000000
470400000000
36750000000
79800000000
176400000000
737100000000
176890000
150062500
150062500
196000000
248062500
196000000
306250000
501760000
150062500
176890000
216090000
745290000
18900000
1575000
1440000
120000
2626050000000
3213420000
b*=(2.626.050.000.000-12*1.575.000*120.000)/(32.134.200.000.00012*1.575.0002)=
=0.1512866
a*=120000-0.1512866*1575000= -118276.4
```