Impetigo Fact Sheet

(Taken from the Bermuda Hospitals Board website at
Impetigo is a skin infection. It often appear as blisters around the mouth and nose
but it can infect skin anywhere on the body. Impetigo can easily spread from one
person to another. This infection occurs most often in children.
Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The most common type of bacteria associated with
this infection include:
• Group A Streptococcus
• Staphylococcus
These types of bacteria are normally found on the skin and in the nose. The bacteria
does not cause trouble until it gets under the skin. Bacteria gets in under the skin
through small cuts, scratches, or insect bites.
Risk Factors
Factors that increase your chance for impetigo include:
• Age: most impetigo occurs in preschool and school-aged children
• Touching a person with impetigo
• Touching the clothing, towels, sheets, or other personal items that belong to a
person with impetigo
• Poor hygiene, particularly unwashed hands and dirty fingernails
• Crowded settings where there is direct person-to-person contact, such as schools
and the military
• Contact sports such as football and wrestling
• Warm, humid environment
• Summer season
• Poor health or weakened immune system
• Tendency to have skin problems such as eczema, poison ivy, or skin allergy
• Cuts, scratches, insect bites, or other injury to the skin
Impetigo Fact Sheet
• Chickenpox
• Lice infections which cause scratching (like scabies, head lice, or public lice)
Symptoms of impetigo appear 4-10 days after contact with the bacteria.
The main signs of impetigo are skin lesions. They occur most often on the face, arms,
or legs but can appear anywhere on the body. The lesions may be red spots, sores, or
blisters. The lesion may:
Ooze and become covered with a flat, dry, honey-colored crust
Increase in size
Spread, especially if scratched
There may also be swollen lymph nodes in the area with more serious infections.
Impetigo is normally a fairly mild condition. However, further problems could
develop if it is not treated. The infection could spread. This can lead to pain, swelling,
pus, or fever. Rarely, impetigo that is caused by Group A Streptococcus may develop
Glomerulonephritis —damage to part of the kidney
Scarlet fever—illness that may include a fever, sore throat, and widespread
Life-threatening invasive streptococcal disease
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. The skin lesions will
be examined. Your doctor will be able to diagnose impetigo by the look of your skin
Your doctor may test a sample of the infected skin. This will show what specific
bacteria are causing the infection. It may help to guide treatment choices.
The goals of treatment are to relieve the symptoms and cure the infection.
Treatment may include:
Antibiotics are a type of medicine that can fight bacteria. For a mild infection your
doctor may recommend:
Prescription topical antibiotic (eg mupirocin, retapamulin )
Over-the-counter topical antibiotic such as neomycin, bacitracin, or
Impetigo Fact Sheet
polymyxin—may be significantly less effective
Topical antibiotics for the inside of the nose—bacteria can hide in the nose
and make it easy for the infection to return
Your doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics, such as:
• Cephalosporin
• A penicillin
In some cases, staphylococcal infections (such as MRSA) may be resistant to these
Others options may be needed.
Good skin care is important with this type of infection. It can help prevent the spread
of the infection to other areas of your skin or to others. In general:
• Do not touch or scratch the lesions.
• Wash the skin several times a day. Use soap and water or an antibiotic soap.
• The crusts may be removed by soaking the infected area. Place warm water on the
area for about 15 minutes.
• Lesions should be covered loosely with gauze, a bandage, or clothing.
To help avoid spreading the infection:
• Wash your hands often and thoroughly. Make sure you wash under your
fingernails where bacteria can hide. It is important to wash your hands after
touching an infected area of your body.
• Avoid contact with newborn babies.
• Stay home until you have had treatment for 24 hours.
• Do not handle food at home until you have had treatment for at least 24 hours.
• If you work in the food service industry, ask your doctor when it is safe for you to
return to work.
Prevention of impetigo involves good personal hygiene. The following tips can help:
• Bathe daily with soap and water.
• Wash your face, hands, and hair regularly.
• If caring for someone with impetigo, be sure to wash your hands after each time
you touch the person.
• Do not share towels, clothes, or sheets. This is more important with a person who
has impetigo.
Impetigo Fact Sheet
• Keep fingernails short and clean.
• Change and wash clothing often.
• Do not let your children play or have close contact with someone who may have
Wash wounds, such as cuts, scratches, or insect bites, with soap and water. Consider
applying a small amount of antibiotic ointment. Cover the wound with a bandage.
American Academy of Dermatology
Kid's Health for Parents (Nemours Foundation)
If you have any questions, please see your child’s physician.
Thank you