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CHAPTER 6
LECTURE
SLIDES
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Energy and Metabolism
SWBAT:
• Explain enzyme function by their lowering activation
energy.
• Demonstrate the catalytic cycle of an enzyme: how the
enzyme is not permanently altered and how a product is
produced from substrate(s).
• Report how various factors that affect enzyme function:
enzyme concentration, substrate concentration,
temperature, pH, salinity, competitive and non-competitive
inhibitors, activators.
• Explain how enzymes can be regulated through feedback
inhibition.
• Illustrate the structure of the ATP (or GTP) molecule.
• Explain how the structure of ATP enables it to transfer
2
energy within the cell.
Flow of Energy
•
Thermodynamics
–
•
Branch of chemistry concerned with energy
changes
Cells are governed by the laws of
physics and chemistry
3
• Energy – capacity to do work
– 2 states
1. Kinetic – energy of motion
2. Potential – stored energy
– Many forms – mechanical, heat, sound,
electric current, light, or radioactivity
– Heat the most convenient way of measuring
energy
•
1 calorie = heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1ºC
•
calorie or Calorie?
4
Weeeeee!
5
• Energy flows into the biological world from
the sun
• Photosynthetic organisms capture this
energy
• Stored as potential energy in chemical
bonds
6
Redox reactions
• Oxidation
– Atom or molecule loses an electron
• Reduction
– Atom or molecule gains an electron
– Higher level of energy than oxidized form
• Oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
– Reactions always paired
7
8
Laws of thermodynamics
• First law of thermodynamics
– Energy cannot be created or destroyed
– Can only change from one form to another
– Total amount of energy in the universe
remains constant
– During each conversion, some energy is lost
as heat
9
• Second law of thermodynamics
– Entropy (disorder) is continuously increasing
– Energy transformations proceed
spontaneously to convert matter from a more
ordered/ less stable form to a less ordered/
more stable form
10
11
Free energy
• G = Energy available to do work
• G = H – TS
 H = enthalpy, energy in a molecule’s chemical
bonds
 T = absolute temperature
 S = entropy, unavailable energy
12
ΔG = ΔH - TS
• ΔG = change in free energy
• Positive ΔG
– Products have more free energy than
reactants
– H is higher or S is lower
– Not spontaneous, Requires input of
energy
– Endergonic
• Negative ΔG
– Products have less free energy than
reactants
– H is lower or S is higher or both
– Spontaneous (may not be
instantaneous)
– Exergonic
13
Activation energy
• Extra energy required to
destabilize existing bonds and
initiate a chemical reaction
• Exergonic reaction’s rate
depends on the activation energy
required
– Larger activation energy
proceeds more slowly
• Rate can be increased 2 ways
1.
2.
Increasing energy of reacting
molecules (heating)
Lowering activation energy
14
Catalysts
• Substances that influence chemical bonds
in a way that lowers activation energy
• Cannot violate laws of thermodynamics
– Cannot make an endergonic reaction
spontaneous
• Do not alter the proportion of reactant
turned into product
15
16
Animation: How Enzymes Work
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ATP
• Adenosine triphosphate
• Chief “currency” all cells
use
• Composed of
– Ribose – 5 carbon sugar
– Adenine
– Chain of 3 phosphates
•
•
•
•
Key to energy storage
Bonds are unstable
ADP – 2 phosphates
AMP – 1 phosphate –
lowest energy form
18
ATP cycle
• ATP hydrolysis drives endergonic
reactions
– Coupled reaction results in net –ΔG
(exergonic and spontaneous)
• ATP not suitable for long term energy
storage
– Fats and carbohydrates better
– Cells store only a few seconds worth of ATP
19
20
Enzymes
• Most enzymes are protein
– Some are RNA
• Shape of enzyme stabilizes a temporary
association between substrates
• Enzyme not changed or consumed in
reaction
• Carbonic anhydrase
– 200 molecules of carbonic acid per hour made
without enzyme
– 600,000 molecules formed per second with enzyme
21
Active site
•
•
•
•
Pockets or clefts for substrate binding
Forms enzyme-substare complex
Precise fit of substrate into active site
Applies stress to distort particular bond to
lower activation energy
– Induced fit
22
23
24
• Enzymes may be suspended in the
cytoplasm or attached to cell membranes
and organelles
• Multienzyme complexes – subunits work
together to form molecular machine
– Product can be delivered easily to next
enzyme
– Unwanted side reactions prevented
– All reactions an be controlled as a unit
25
Enzyme Action
• Metabolic pathways
• Series of enzyme-controlled reactions leading to formation of a
product
• Each new substrate is the product of the previous reaction
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Substrate
1
Enzyme A
Substrate
2
Enzyme B
Substrate
3
Enzyme C
Substrate
4
Enzyme D
• Enzyme names commonly:
• Reflect the substrate
• Have the suffix – ase
• Examples: sucrase, lactase, protease, lipase
Product
26
Nonprotein enzymes
• Ribozymes
• 1981 discovery that certain reactions
catalyzed in cells by RNA molecule itself
1.2 kinds
1. Intramolecular catalysis – catalyze reaction
on RNA molecule itself
2. Intermolecular catalysis – RNA acts on
another molecule
27
Enzyme function
• Rate of enzyme-catlyzed reaction depends
on concentrations of substrate and
enzyme
• Any chemical or physical condition that
affects the enzyme’s 3 dimensional shape
can change rate
– Optimum temperature
– Optimum pH
28
29
Inhibitors
• Inhibitor – substance that binds to enzyme
and decreases its activity
• Competitive inhibitor
– Competes with substrate for active site
• Noncompetitive inhibitor
– Binds to enzyme at a site other than active
site
– Causes shape change that makes enzyme
unable to bind substrate
30
31
Allostery
• Allosteric enzymes – enzymes exist in
active and inactive forms
• Most noncompetitive inhibitors bind to
allosteric site – chemical on/off switch
• Allosteric inhibitor – binds to allosteric site
and reduces enzyme activity
• Allosteric activator – binds to allosteric site
and increases enzyme activity
32
Metabolism
• Total of all chemical reactions carried out
by an organism
• Anabolic reactions / anabolism
– Expend energy to build up molecules
• Catabolic reactions/ catabolism
– Harvest energy by breaking down molecules
33
Biochemical pathways
• Reactions occur in a sequence
• Product of one reaction is the substrate for
the next
• Many steps take place in organelles
34
35
Feedback inhibition
• End-product of pathway binds to an
allosteric site on enzyme that catalyses
first reaction in pathway
• Shuts down pathway so raw materials and
energy are not wasted
36
37
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