Detergents from renewable resources

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Detergents from
renewable resources
Sugar based
surfactants
Ingegärd Johansson
AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry
Sustainable chemistry
2030
Five companies with a common vison for the future:
”2030 Stenungsund is the centre for production of
sustainable products within the chemical industry. Our
activity is based on renewable raw materials and
energy and contributes to a sustainable society.
Earlier, now and in
the future
1990
2010
•Raw material from fossil
• More raw material from renewable
sources
sources
• Higher output per kilo produced• Goals for lower output of CO2
•Lower demands from the
• District heating well established
environment and shorter lifetime • Recovery of material and more
for the products
sustainable products
2030
• Only renewable raw material
• All products contribute to sustainable development
• All plastics we produce are recovered
• West coast net for district heating and cooling
• Biogas, bioethanol och biohydrogen is produced
?
Surface active agents =
Surfactants
Hydrophilic
Likes water
Hydrophobic
Likes oil
Surfactants derived from
renewable sources
Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic
Carboxylic group
Fatty acids,
alcohols, lignins,
steroids,
lecithins
Glycerol,
saccharides,
phosphate,
ammonia, urea,
Ethylene oxide
from bio-ethanol
protein
hydrolysates
Alkyl (poly) glucosides
Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic
Glucose
Fatty alcohols
(from starch or
cellulose)
(from fatty acids
i.e. from “fat”)
Classical synthesis of Alkyl
Glucosides, ”Fischer
glucosidation”
Work-up procedure for industrial
(Fischer) glucosidation
Neutralization, NaOH + Na2CO3
 Evaporation of the excess alcohol
(reused), risk for discoloration
(caramellization and Maillard reaction)
 Dissolution in suitable medium
 Bleach with alkaline hydrogen peroxide,
risk for oxidized by-products

By-products at AGproduction



Dealkylation and polymerization of glucose
give poly saccharides
Dehydratization, gives unsaturated products
e.g. hydroxymethyl furaldehyde, which may
polymerize to coloured complex products
Oxidation of OH-functions give carboxylic
acids. These may react with alcohol under
acidic conditions resulting in esters. Under
alkaline conditions, e.g. when being
bleached, these get hydrolyzed and pH will
go down.
Need for an enzymatic
process?
Stereo specificity?
 Excess alcohol to avoid
polymerization?
 Easier work-up procedure?
 Are there enzymes capable of doing
this?

Greenchem results?
Stereospecific syntheses works
 Difficult to get an efficient process with
cheap raw material
 Focus on specialties for specific
purposes
 Ex. Long chain glucosides as
emulsifiers and solubilizers
 Applications interesting for
AstraZeneca

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