Chemistry 8.2

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OPENER # - CHAPTER 8 - NOV __, 2012
Balance the following equations:
CO (g)
+
N2O5 (g)
O2( g) -->
+
H2O (l) -->
CO2 (g)
HNO3 (aq)
PCl5 (l)
+
H2O (l) -->
H3PO4 (aq)
CH4 (g)
+
Br2 (g) -->
CBr4 (l)
C5H10O2 (l)
Cr(OH) 3 (s)
+
+
O2 (g) -->
CO2 (g)
HClO4 (aq) -->
+
+
HCl (aq)
HBr (g)
+
H2O (l)
Cr(ClO4) 3 (aq)
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+
H2O (l)
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S.15.C.6 Identify the physical state for each substance in a reaction equation
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Chapter 8
Chemical Equations and Chemical
Reactions
Table of Contents
Section 2 Types of Chemical Reactions
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Objectives
• Define and give general equations for synthesis,
decomposition, single-displacement, and doubledisplacement reactions.
• Classify a reaction as a synthesis, decomposition,
single-displacement, double-displacement, or
combustion reaction.
• List three kinds of synthesis reactions and six kinds of
decomposition reactions.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Objectives, continued
• List four kinds of single-displacement reactions and
three kinds of double-displacement reactions.
• Predict the products of simple reactions given the
reactants.
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
The heat and smoke of
burning charcoal are the
products of a combustion
reaction. Combustion is one of
the five general types of
chemical reactions. If you can
recognize a reaction as being
a particular type, you may be
able to predict the products of
the reaction.
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Classifying Reactions
Classifying Reactions
What are the five general types of
reactions?
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
• There are several ways to classify chemical reactions.
• The classification scheme described in this section
provides an introduction to five basic types of
reactions:
• synthesis or combination or composition
• decomposition
• single-displacement (or replacement)
• double-displacement (or replacement)
• combustion reactions
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions
• In a synthesis reaction, also known as a composition or
combination reaction, two or more substances combine to
form a new compound.
• This type of reaction is represented by the following
general equation.
A+X
AX
• A and X can be elements or compounds.
• AX is a compound
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Chapter 8
Visual Concepts
Synthesis Reactions
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Synthesis


A + B  AB
+

Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Reactions of Elements with Oxygen and Sulfur
• One simple type of synthesis reaction is the combination
of an element with oxygen to produce an oxide of the
element.
• Almost all metals react with oxygen to form oxides.
• example: 2Mg(s) + O2(g)
2MgO(s)
• Group 2 elements react in a similar manner, forming
oxides with the formula MO, where M represents the
metal.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Reactions of Elements with Oxygen and Sulfur,
continued
• The Group 1 metals form oxides with the formula
M2O.
• example: Li2O
• The Group 1 and Group 2 elements react similarly
with sulfur, forming sulfides with the formulas M2S and
MS, respectively.
16Rb(s) + S8(s)
8Rb2S(s)
8Ba(s) + S8(s)
8BaS(s)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Reactions of Elements with Oxygen and Sulfur,
continued
• Nonmetals also undergo synthesis reactions with
oxygen to form oxides.
• example: Sulfur reacts to form sulfur dioxide.
S8(s) + 8O2(g)
8SO2(g)
• example: Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form
dihydrogen monoxide (water).
2H2(g) + O2(g)
2H2O(g)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Reactions of Metals with Halogens
• Most metals react with the Group 17 elements, the
halogens, to form either ionic or covalent compounds.
• Group 1 metals react with halogens to form ionic
compounds with the formula MX, where M is the
metal and X is the halogen.
• example: 2Na(s) + Cl2(g)
2NaCl(s)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Reactions of Metals with Halogens, continued
• Group 2 metals react with the halogens to form
ionic compounds with the formula MX2.
• example: Mg(s) + F2(g)
MgF2(s)
• Fluorine is so reactive that it combines with almost all
metals.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Synthesis Reactions with Oxides
• Active metals are highly reactive metals.
• Oxides of active metals react with water to produce
metal hydroxides.
• example: Calcium oxide reacts with water to form
calcium hydroxide.
CaO(s) + H2O(l)
Ca(OH)2(s)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Synthesis Reactions, continued
Synthesis Reactions with Oxides, continued
• Many oxides of nonmetals in the upper right portion of
the periodic table react with water to produce
oxyacids.
• example: SO2(g) + H2O(l)
H2SO3(aq)
• Certain metal oxides and nonmetal oxides react with
each other in synthesis reactions to form salts.
• example: CaO(s) + SO2(g)
CaSO3(s)
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Classifying Reactions
Decomposition Reactions
A decomposition reaction is a chemical
change in which a single compound breaks
down into two or more simpler products.
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Decomposition
 AB  A + B


Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Decomposition Reactions
• In a decomposition reaction, a single compound
undergoes a reaction that produces two or more
simpler substances: elements or compounds.
• Decomposition reactions are the opposite of synthesis
reactions.
• They are represented by the following general
equation.
AX
A+X
• AX is a compound.
• A and X can be elements or compounds.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Decomposition Reactions, continued
Decomposition of Binary Compounds
• The decomposition of a substance by an electric
current is called electrolysis.
• example: 2H O(l) electricity

 2H2 (g) + O2 (g)
2
• Oxides of the less-active metals, which are located in
the lower center of the periodic table, decompose into
their elements when heated.
• example: 2HgO(s) 
 2Hg(l) + O2 (g)
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Chapter 8
Visual Concepts
Electrolysis
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Decomposition Reactions, continued
Decomposition of Metal Carbonates

CaCO3 (s) 
 CaO(s) + CO2 (g)
Decomposition of Metal Hydroxides

Ca(OH)2 (s) 
 CaO(s) + H2O(g)
Decomposition of Metal Chlorates

2KClO3 (s) MnO

 2KCl(s) + 3O2 (g)
(s)
2
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Decomposition Reactions, continued
Decomposition of Acids
• Certain acids decompose into nonmetal oxides and
water.
• example: Carbonic acid is unstable and
decomposes readily at room temperature to
produce carbon dioxide and water.
H2CO3 (aq)  CO2 (g) + H2O(l)
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Classifying Reactions
Single-Replacement Reactions
A single-replacement reaction is a chemical
change in which one element replaces a second
element in a compound.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Single-Displacement Reactions
• In a single-displacement reaction, also known as a
replacement reaction, one element replaces a similar
element in a compound.
• Many single-displacement reactions take place in
aqueous solution.
• Single-displacement reactions can be represented by
the following general equations.
A + BX
AX + B or Y + BX
BY
+X
• A, B, X, and Y are elements. AX, BX, and BY are compounds.
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Single Displacement

AX + B  A + BX
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Single-Displacement Reactions
Displacement of a Metal in a Compound by Another
Metal
• Aluminum is more active than lead.
2Al(s) + 3Pb(NO3)2(aq)
3Pb(s) + 2Al(NO3)3(aq)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Single-Displacement Reactions, continued
Displacement of Hydrogen in Water by a Metal
• The most-active metals, such as those in Group 1, react
vigorously with water to produce metal hydroxides and
hydrogen.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)
2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
• Less-active metals, such as iron, react with steam to
form a metal oxide and hydrogen gas.
3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g)
Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Single-Displacement Reactions, continued
Displacement of Hydrogen in an Acid by a Metal
• The more-active metals react with certain acidic
solutions, such as hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric
acid, replacing the hydrogen in the acid.
• The reaction products are a metal compound (a salt)
and hydrogen gas.
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)
H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Single-Displacement Reactions, continued
Displacement of Halogens
• Fluorine is the most-active halogen.
• It can replace any of the other halogens in their
compounds.
• In Group 17 each element can replace any element
below it, but not any element above it.
Cl2(g) + 2KBr(aq)
2KCl(aq) + Br2(l)
F2(g) + 2NaCl(aq)
2NaF(aq) + Cl2(g)
Br2(l) + KCl(aq)
no reaction
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Classifying Reactions
The activity series of
metals lists metals in
order of decreasing
reactivity.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Double-Displacement Reactions
• In double-displacement reactions, the ions of two
compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to
form two new compounds.
• One of the compounds formed is usually a precipitate,
an insoluble gas that bubbles out of the solution, or a
molecular compound, usually water.
• The other compound is often soluble and remains
dissolved in solution.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Double-Displacement Reactions, continued
• A double-displacement reaction is represented by the
following general equation.
AX + BY
AY + BX
• A, X, B, and Y in the reactants represent ions.
• AY and BX represent ionic or molecular
compounds.
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Double Displacement
 AX + BY  AY + BX

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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Double-Displacement Reactions, continued
Formation of a Precipitate
• The formation of a precipitate occurs when the cations
of one reactant combine with the anions of another
reactant to form an insoluble or slightly soluble
compound.
• example:
2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)
PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
• The precipitate forms as a result of the very strong attractive
forces between the Pb2+ cations and the I anions.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Double-Displacement Reactions, continued
Formation of a Gas
FeS(s) + 2HCl(aq)
H2S(g) + FeCl2(aq)
Formation of Water
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)
NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Classifying Reactions
Double-Replacement Reactions
A double-replacement reaction is a chemical
change involving an exchange of positive ions
between two compounds.
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Classifying Reactions
Combustion Reactions
A combustion reaction is a chemical change in
which an element or a compound reacts with
oxygen, often producing energy in the form of
heat and light.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Combustion Reactions
• In a combustion reaction, a substance combines with
oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form
of light and heat.
• example: combustion of hydrogen
2H2(g) + O2(g)
2H2O(g)
• example: combustion of propane
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g)
3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)
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Chapter 8
Visual Concepts
Combustion Reaction
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Predicting the Products of a
Chemical Reaction
Predicting the Products of a Chemical
Reaction
How can you predict the products of the
five general types of reactions?
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8.2
Types of Chemical Reactions
>
Predicting the Products of a
Chemical Reaction
The number of elements and/or
compounds reacting is a good indicator
of possible reaction type and thus
possible products.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Determining Reaction Types
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Identifying Reactions and Predicting
Products
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Identifying Reactions and Predicting Products
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Types of Chemical
Reactions
Identifying
Reactions and
Predicting
Products
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Section Review
pg. 284 #2, 3, 4
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Section Review
pg. 284 #2, 3, 4 ANSWERS
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8.2 Section Quiz.
Assess students’ understanding of
the concepts in Section
8.2.
Continue to:
-or-
Launch:
Section Quiz
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8.2 Section Quiz.
1. What type of reaction is described by the
following equation?
6Li + N2  2Li3N
a. combination reaction
b. decomposition reaction
c. single-replacement reaction
d. combustion reaction
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8.2 Section Quiz.
2.
Balance the following equation and indicate whether it represents a
combustion, combination, or decomposition reaction.
H2SO4  H2O2 + SO2
a.
H2SO4  H2O2 + SO2, combination reaction
b.
H2SO4  H2O2 + SO2, decomposition reaction
c.
H2SO4  2H2O2 + SO2, combination reaction
d.
H2SO4  2H2O2 + SO2, decomposition reaction
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8.2 Section Quiz.
3. Predict the missing product in the following
unbalanced equation.
Pb(NO3)2 + KOH  KNO3 + ____________
a. PbOH2
b. Pb(OH)4
c. Pb(OH)2
d. PbOH
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Online Self-Check Quiz
Complete the online Quiz and record answers.
Ask if you have any questions about your
answers.
click here for online Quiz 8.2
(8 questions)
You must be in the “Play mode” for the
slideshow for hyperlink to work.
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VIDEOS FOR ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTION
Additional Videos for
Section 8.2: Types of Chemical Reactions
•Types of Reactions
•Synthesis Reactions
•Decomposition Reaction
•Single Replacement Reaction
•Double Replacement Reactions
•Combustion Reactions
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
1. According to the law of conservation of mass, the total
mass of the reacting substances is
A. always more than the total mass of the products.
B. always less than the total mass of the products.
C. sometimes
and sometimes less than the total
mass of themore
products.
D. always equal to the total mass of the products.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
1. According to the law of conservation of mass, the total
mass of the reacting substances is
A. always more than the total mass of the products.
B. always less than the total mass of the products.
C. sometimes
and sometimes less than the total
mass of themore
products.
D. always equal to the total mass of the products.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
2. To balance a chemical equation, you may adjust the
A. coefficients.
B. subscripts.
C. formulas of the products.
D. either the coefficients or the subscripts.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
2. To balance a chemical equation, you may adjust the
A. coefficients.
B. subscripts.
C. formulas of the products.
D. either the coefficients or the subscripts.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
3. Which is the correct chemical equation for the
following formula equation:
(NH4)2S
NH3 + H2S?
A. 2(NH4)2S
B. 2(NH4)2S
2NH3 + H2S2
2NH3 + H2S
C. (NH4)2S
2NH3 + H2S
D. None of the above
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
3. Which is the correct chemical equation for the
following formula equation:
(NH4)2S
NH3 + H2S?
A. 2(NH4)2S
B. 2(NH4)2S
2NH3 + H2S2
2NH3 + H2S
C. (NH4)2S
2NH3 + H2S
D. None of the above
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
4. Select the missing reactant(s) for the doubledisplacement reaction that produces PF5 and AsCl3.
A. PCl5 and AsF3
B. PCl3 and AsF5
C. PCl3 and AsF3
D. None of the above
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
4. Select the missing reactant(s) for the doubledisplacement reaction that produces PF5 and AsCl3.
A. PCl5 and AsF3
B. PCl3 and AsF5
C. PCl3 and AsF3
D. None of the above
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
5. Select the missing reactant for the following
combustion reaction: 2______ + 15O2
14CO2 + 6H2O.
A. C14H12
B. C14H12O4
C. C7H6
D. C7H6O2
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
5. Select the missing reactant for the following
combustion reaction: 2______ + 15O2
14CO2 + 6H2O.
A. C14H12
B. C14H12O4
C. C7H6
D. C7H6O2
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
6. A mixture consists of Ag, Pb, and Fe metals. Which of
these metals will react with ZnCl2?
A. Ag(s)
B. Pb(s)
C. Fe(s)
D. None of these metals
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
6. A mixture consists of Ag, Pb, and Fe metals. Which of
these metals will react with ZnCl2?
A. Ag(s)
B. Pb(s)
C. Fe(s)
D. None of these metals
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
7. Which of the following statements is true about the
reaction 2F2 + 2H2O
4HF + O2?
A. Two grams of O2 are produced when 2 g F2 reacts
with 2 g H2O.
B. Two moles of HF are produced when 1 mol F2
reacts with 1 mol H2O.
C. For every 2 mol O2 produced, 6 mol HF are
produced.
D. For every 1 mol H2O that reacts, 2 mol O2 are
produced.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Multiple Choice
7. Which of the following statements is true about the
reaction 2F2 + 2H2O
4HF + O2?
A. Two grams of O2 are produced when 2 g F2 reacts
with 2 g H2O.
B. Two moles of HF are produced when 1 mol F2
reacts with 1 mol H2O.
C. For every 2 mol O2 produced, 6 mol HF are
produced.
D. For every 1 mol H2O that reacts, 2 mol O2 are
produced.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Short Answer
8. Determine the products and write a balanced equation
for the reaction of solid magnesium and water.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Short Answer
8. Determine the products and write a balanced equation
for the reaction of solid magnesium and water.
Answer:
Mg(s) + 2H2O(l)
Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Short Answer
9. A precipitation of iron(III) hydroxide is produced by
reacting an aqueous solution of iron(III) chloride with
an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Write a
balanced chemical equation.
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Short Answer
9. A precipitation of iron(III) hydroxide is produced by
reacting an aqueous solution of iron(III) chloride with
an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Write a
balanced chemical equation.
Answer:
FeCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq)
Fe(OH)3(s) + 3NaCl(s)
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Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Extended Response
10. List the hypothetical metals A, E, M, and R in
increasing order of reactivity by using the reaction
data in the table below. The reaction of interest is of
the form C + ZX
CX + Z. Explain your reasoning.
AX
EX
MX
RX
A
_____
no reaction
reaction
no reaction
E
reaction
_____
reaction
reaction
M
no reaction
no reaction
_____
no reaction
R
reaction
no reaction
reaction
_____
Chapter menu
Resources
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Extended Response
10. List the hypothetical metals A, E, M, and R in
increasing order of reactivity by using the reaction data
in the table below. The reaction of interest is of the form
C + ZX
CX + Z. Explain your reasoning.
Answer: The metals in increasing order of reactivity are M, A, R,
and E. M is the least reactive because it shows no reaction in a
single-displacement reaction with any of the other metals. A is
the next least reactive because it will react in a singledisplacement reaction with only M. E is the most reactive metal
of the series because E will react in a single-displacement
reaction with the other three metals.
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Resources
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Extended Response
11. Calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2, is a bleaching agent
produced from sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide,
and chlorine. Sodium chloride and water are also
produced in the reaction. Write the balanced chemical
equation. If 2 mol NaOH react, how many moles of
calcium hypochlorite can be produced?
Chapter menu
Resources
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 8
Standardized Test Preparation
Extended Response
11. Calcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2, is a bleaching agent
produced from sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide,
and chlorine. Sodium chloride and water are also
produced in the reaction. Write the balanced chemical
equation. If 2 mol NaOH react, how many moles of
calcium hypochlorite can be produced?
Answer: The balanced chemical equation is
2NaOH + Ca(OH)2 + 2Cl2
Ca(OCl)2 + 2NaCl + H2O.
If 2 mol NaOH react, then 1 mol Ca(OCl)2 can be
produced.
Chapter menu
Resources
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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