# f (or n)

```Advanced Higher Chemistry
Unit 1 - Electronic structure and the periodic table (20 hours)
Unit 2 - Principles of chemical reactions (40 hours)
Unit 3 - Organic chemistry (40 hours)
Chemical investigation (20 hours)
MM 2011 AH
Electronic structure and the Periodic Table
Electronic structure
Electromagnetic spectrum & associated calculations
Electronic configuration & the Periodic Table
Spectroscopy
Chemical bonding
Covalent bonding
Resonance structures
Shapes of molecules & polyatomic ions
Ionic lattices, superconductors and semiconductors
Some chemistry of the Periodic Table
The second & third short periods: oxides, chlorides & hydrides
Electronic configuration & oxidation states of the transition metals
Transition metal complexes
MM 2011 AH
James Maxwell’s theory
• all radiation wave-like electric and magnetic fields in space
• waves varying in length
10-14 m - 104 m
• constant velocity in a vacuum
3 x 108 ms-1
MM 2011 AH
Waves
Waves can be described by their wavelength, frequency
and velocity.
Wavelength, l (m or nm; 1 nm = 10-9 m), the distance between
two identical points on adjacent waves.
Frequency, f (or) n (s-1 or Hz), the number of waves per second
Velocity, c (ms-1 ), the distance a wave travels per second
c = l x f (n)
Wavenumber, 1/l (m -1 or cm
one metre or one centimetre.
-1
), the number of waves in
MM 2011 AH
Waves continued
l
f (or n) = 3 Hz
1s
f (or n) = 6 Hz
l
Velocity, c (ms-1 ) = l x f (or n)
l=c
f
f (or n) = c
l
MM 2011 AH
Waves summary
Quantity
Symbol
Frequency
Units
Description
Hz
nm
or m
Wavelength
Distance between
Velocity
Wavenumber
c
_
n
l f (or n) Rate of advance
of a wave
Number of waves
per second
ms-1
cm-1
or m-1
m
Number of waves
in 1 m or 1 cm
MM 2011 AH
Waves summary
Quantity
Frequency
Wavelength
Velocity
Wavenumber
Symbol
f (or n)
Units
Hz
l
m
c
_
n
ms-1
cm-1
or m-1
Description
Number of waves
per second
Distance between
of a wave
Number of waves
in 1 m or 1 cm
MM 2011 AH
Electromagnetic spectrum
Wavelength, l/m 100
Wavelength, l/nm
short
microwaves
1
700
infrared rays
10-3
600
UV
rays
X-rays
10-6
10-9
visible
gamma rays
10-12
500
400
Get X Unless Very Ill Men Start Resting
Past papers 2013 Q2 -4; 2012 Q1
MM 2011 AH
Quanta – small bundles or packets of energy.
- fixed size so transfer of energy occurs in fixed amounts
Electromagnetic radiation is also regarded as a
stream of particles – photons (wave-particle duality).
Energy of radiation for a photon can be calculated using
E = h f or E = h c
(E = h n)
l
h is Planck’s constant = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
For one mole of photons
E = L h f or E = L h c
l
(E = L h n)