Biology Fall Term Semester Exam Review

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Biology Semester Exam Review
Fall 2010
• What major improvement came with
the development of the scanning
electron microscope?
• a. Magnets were replaced with lighter
materials.
• b. It produced images with better color.
• c. The magnification was higher.
• d. The images were three dimensional.
• What major improvement came with
the development of the scanning
electron microscope?
• a. Magnets were replaced with lighter
materials.
• b. It produced images with better color.
• c. The magnification was higher.
• d. The images were three dimensional.
• A scientist at the polar ice cap was studying an ice
sample from hundred of meters below the surface.
While examining the ice, the scientist found some
cells from many years ago. Using an electron
microscope, the scientist identified these cell
structures: a cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, nucleus,
cell wall, and ribosomes. What kind of organism
did the scientist find?
• a. animal
c.
plant
• b. bacteria d. He did not have enough
information.
• A scientist at the polar ice cap was studying an ice
sample from hundred of meters below the surface.
While examining the ice, the scientist found some
cells from many years ago. Using an electron
microscope, the scientist identified these cell
structures: a cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, nucleus,
cell wall, and ribosomes. What kind of organism
did the scientist find?
• a. animal
c.
plant
• b. bacteria d. He did not have enough
information.
• At what point in the process of diffusion
is dynamic equilibrium reached?
• a. when the movement of the molecules
stops being random
• b. when the molecules are mixed and
stop moving
• c. when the rate of change in the
solution slows by one half
• d. when there is continuous movement
but no change
• At what point in the process of diffusion
is dynamic equilibrium reached?
• a. when the movement of the molecules
stops being random
• b. when the molecules are mixed and
stop moving
• c. when the rate of change in the
solution slows by one half
• d. when there is continuous movement
but no change
• During photosynthesis light energy is
converted to the energy in chemical bonds.
What also happens according to the
predictions of the second law of
thermodynamics?
• a. chemical energy is converted to light
energy
• b. matter is lost in the process
• c. heat is released in the process
• d. the light and chemical energy are equal
• During photosynthesis light energy is
converted to the energy in chemical bonds.
What also happens according to the
predictions of the second law of
thermodynamics?
• a. chemical energy is converted to light
energy
• b. matter is lost in the process
• c. heat is released in the process
• d. the light and chemical energy are equal
• What is a major difference between
facilitated diffusion and active transport?
• a. Active transport moves substances
against the concentration gradient.
• b. Active transport uses proteins in the
process.
• c. Facilitated diffusion moves molecules
through the plasma membrane.
• d. Facilitated diffusion requires large
amounts of energy.
• What is a major difference between
facilitated diffusion and active transport?
• a. Active transport moves substances
against the concentration gradient.
• b. Active transport uses proteins in the
process.
• c. Facilitated diffusion moves molecules
through the plasma membrane.
• d. Facilitated diffusion requires large
amounts of energy.
• What types of materials are expelled
from cells during exocytosis?
• a. large molecules such as hormones
• b. positive and negative ions
• c. small molecules such as carbon
dioxide
• d. water and glycerol
• What types of materials are expelled
from cells during exocytosis?
• a. large molecules such as hormones
• b. positive and negative ions
• c. small molecules such as carbon
dioxide
• d. water and glycerol
• Which of the following is an
example of passive transport?
• a. endocytosis
• b. facilitated diffusion
• c. exocytosis
• d. Na+/K+ ATPase pump
• Which of the following is an
example of passive transport?
• a. endocytosis
• b. facilitated diffusion
• c. exocytosis
• d. Na+/K+ ATPase pump
• Nutrients and oxygen move from
where they are in a greater
concentration in blood to where they
are lesser concentrated in cells. Which
term correctly identifies the process by
which nutrients and oxygen enter cells?
• a. active transport
• b. passive transport
• c. respiration
• d. photosynthesis
• Nutrients and oxygen move from
where they are in a greater
concentration in blood to where they
are lesser concentrated in cells. Which
term correctly identifies the process by
which nutrients and oxygen enter cells?
• a. active transport
• b. passive transport
• c. respiration
• d. photosynthesis
• Which statement is a fundamental
principle of the cell theory?
• a. All cells have a plasma membrane.
• b. Eukaryotic cells are larger than
prokaryotic cells.
• c. Living organisms are composed of
cells.
• d. The genetic material in cells is DNA.
• Which statement is a fundamental
principle of the cell theory?
• a. All cells have a plasma membrane.
• b. Eukaryotic cells are larger than
prokaryotic cells.
• c. Living organisms are composed of
cells.
• d. The genetic material in cells is DNA.
• Which organelle converts sugars
into energy?
• a. lysosome
• b. nucleus
• c. mitochondrion
• d. ribosome
• Which organelle converts sugars
into energy?
• a. lysosome
• b. nucleus
• c. mitochondrion
• d. ribosome
• Which cellular organelle is surrounded
by a double membrane, contains DNA
and is responsible for converting
inorganic compounds into organic
compounds with the use of light
energy?
• a. mitochondria
• b. chloroplast
• c. centriole
• d. nucleus
• Which cellular organelle is surrounded
by a double membrane, contains DNA
and is responsible for converting
inorganic compounds into organic
compounds with the use of light
energy?
• a. mitochondria
• b. chloroplast
• c. centriole
• d. nucleus
• Which of the following correctly sequences the
steps of the scientific method?
• a. question, observe, explain, design and conduct
experiment, collect and analyze data, report
findings
• b. observe, question, make a testable explanation,
experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings
• c. form a hypothesis, observe, investigate a
testable question, collect and analyze data, state
results
• d. design and conduct an investigation based on a
testable question, form a hypothesis, collect data,
state findings
• Which of the following correctly sequences the
steps of the scientific method?
• a. question, observe, explain, design and conduct
experiment, collect and analyze data, report
findings
• b. observe, question, make a testable explanation,
experiment, collect and analyze data, state findings
• c. form a hypothesis, observe, investigate a
testable question, collect and analyze data, state
results
• d. design and conduct an investigation based on a
testable question, form a hypothesis, collect data,
state findings
• Students in a biology class ran an experiment on a type of
flowering plant. Their goal was to find the optimal time in the
plant's life for flowering. What time period will provide the
most flowering plants? Use Table 1-1 to determine your answer.
• Table 1-1
• Day
• 2
• 4
• 6
• 8
• 10
• a. 5–6 days
• b. 6–7 days
Number of Plants Flowering
6
12
18
22
8
c.
d.
7–8 days
8–9 days
• Students in a biology class ran an experiment on a type of
flowering plant. Their goal was to find the optimal time in the
plant's life for flowering. What time period will provide the
most flowering plants? Use Table 1-1 to determine your answer.
• Table 1-1
• Day
• 2
• 4
• 6
• 8
• 10
• a. 5–6 days
• b. 6–7 days
Number of Plants Flowering
6
12
18
22
8
c.
d.
7–8 days
8–9 days
• In the grocery store, vegetables are sprayed
with a mist of water by a timed sprayer. This
allows water to move into the cells of the
vegetables to keep them crisp so that they
look fresh to the customers. The water moves
into the cells of the vegetables by which of
the following processes?
• a. active transport
• b. facilitated diffusion
• c. osmosis
• d. gated channels
• In the grocery store, vegetables are sprayed
with a mist of water by a timed sprayer. This
allows water to move into the cells of the
vegetables to keep them crisp so that they
look fresh to the customers. The water moves
into the cells of the vegetables by which of
the following processes?
• a. active transport
• b. facilitated diffusion
• c. osmosis
• d. gated channels
The organelles labeled “A” above are partially synthesized in
the nucleus, can be found attached to the endoplasmic
reticulum or in long chains in the cytosol, and play an
important role in the synthesis of proteins in both plant and
animal cells. Which organelles are they?
• a. lysosomes c.
mitochondria
• b. ribosomes d.
centrioles
The organelles labeled “A” above are partially synthesized in
the nucleus, can be found attached to the endoplasmic
reticulum or in long chains in the cytosol, and play an
important role in the synthesis of proteins in both plant and
animal cells. Which organelles are they?
• a. lysosomes c.
mitochondria
• b. ribosomes d.
centrioles
• Which organic compounds have
binding sites and are responsible for
helping to regulate movement of
materials across cell membranes that
are too large to pass on their own?
• a. carbohydrates
• b. lipids
• c. nucleic acids
• d. proteins
• Which organic compounds have
binding sites and are responsible for
helping to regulate movement of
materials across cell membranes that
are too large to pass on their own?
• a. carbohydrates
• b. lipids
• c. nucleic acids
• d. proteins
• What results from the removal of a
phosphate group from ATP?
• a. the production of mechanical
energy
• b. the release of energy
• c. the creation of energy
• d. the absorption of energy by
chlorophyll
• What results from the removal of a
phosphate group from ATP?
• a. the production of mechanical
energy
• b. the release of energy
• c. the creation of energy
• d. the absorption of energy by
chlorophyll
• The energy acquired in
photosynthesis is used to make
glucose. Where is the glucose made
in plants?
• a. in the thylakoid
• b. in the stroma
• c. in the thylakoid membrane
• d. outside the chloroplast
• The energy acquired in
photosynthesis is used to make
glucose. Where is the glucose made
in plants?
• a. in the thylakoid
• b. in the stroma
• c. in the thylakoid membrane
• d. outside the chloroplast
• Which of the following metabolic
pathways is anabolic?
• a. photosynthesis
• b. breakdown of actin in muscles
• c. respiration
• d. alcohol fermentation
• Which of the following metabolic
pathways is anabolic?
• a. photosynthesis
• b. breakdown of actin in muscles
• c. respiration
• d. alcohol fermentation
• What is the role of oxygen in cellular
respiration?
• a. It provides electrons for the electron
transport chain.
• b. It combines with carbon monoxide to
form carbon dioxide.
• c. It is needed for the production of light
and heat.
• d. It is the final electron acceptor for the
electron transport chain.
• What is the role of oxygen in cellular
respiration?
• a. It provides electrons for the electron
transport chain.
• b. It combines with carbon monoxide to
form carbon dioxide.
• c. It is needed for the production of light
and heat.
• d. It is the final electron acceptor for the
electron transport chain.
• Which process changes a
chlorine atom into a chloride
ion?
• A. Electron gain
• B. Electron loss
• C. proton gain
• D. proton loss
• Which process changes a
chlorine atom into a chloride
ion?
• A. Electron gain
• B. Electron loss
• C. proton gain
• D. proton loss
• Within a single water molecule,
what type of bond joins the
hydrogen and oxygen atoms?
• A. An ionic bond
• B. a covalent bond
• C. a hydrogen bond
• D. An adhesive bond
• Within a single water molecule,
what type of bond joins the
hydrogen and oxygen atoms?
• A. An ionic bond
• B. a covalent bond
• C. a hydrogen bond
• D. An adhesive bond
Concentration of
Sugar Solution (M)
Initial Mass of Potato
(g)
Final Mass of Potato
(g)
Percentage Change in
Mass
0.1
1.30
1.27
--2%
0.2
1.29
1.21
--6%
0.4
1.27
1.00
--21%
0.6
1.38
1.03
--25%
Hank is performing a simulation in class. Hank hypothesizes
that if potato cubes are placed in solutions with different
concentrations of sugar molecules, then the potato cube in
the solution with the highest concentraion of sugar molecules
will show the greatest change in mass. Hank prepares four
different solutions with four different concentrations of sugar
and puts a potato cube in each of them. His results are
shown above. What cellular activity is Hank modeling?
A. Active transport
B. osmosis
c. DNA replication
D. hydration
Concentration of
Sugar Solution (M)
Initial Mass of Potato
(g)
Final Mass of Potato
(g)
Percentage Change in
Mass
0.1
1.30
1.27
--2%
0.2
1.29
1.21
--6%
0.4
1.27
1.00
--21%
0.6
1.38
1.03
--25%
Hank is performing a simulation in class. Hank hypothesizes
that if potato cubes are placed in solutions with different
concentrations of sugar molecules, then the potato cube in
the solution with the highest concentraion of sugar molecules
will show the greatest change in mass. Hank prepares four
different solutions with four different concentrations of sugar
and puts a potato cube in each of them. His results are
shown above. What cellular activity is Hank modeling?
A. Active transport
B. osmosis
c. DNA replication
D. hydration
• How do the isotopes of hydrogen
differ?
• A. the number of protons
• B. the number of energy levels
• C. the number of electrons
• D. the number of neutrons
• How do the isotopes of hydrogen
differ?
• A. the number of protons
• B. the number of energy levels
• C. the number of electrons
• D. the number of neutrons
• Coffee has a pH of about 5.
Coffee is ____.
• a. extremely acidic
• b. somewhat acidic
• c. extremely basic
• d. somewhat basic
• Coffee has a pH of about 5.
Coffee is ____.
• a. extremely acidic
• b. somewhat acidic
• c. extremely basic
• d. somewhat basic
• Which of the following substances
are biological catalysts that speed
up the rate of chemical reactions
in biological processes?
• A. catalyst
• B. protein
• C. enzyme
• D. substrate
• Which of the following substances
are biological catalysts that speed
up the rate of chemical reactions
in biological processes?
• A. catalyst
• B. protein
• C. enzyme
• D. substrate
• Which describes the activities of
a cell that include cellular growth
and cell division?
• A. chromatin
• B. cytoplasm
• C. mitosis
• D. cell cycle
• Which describes the activities of
a cell that include cellular growth
and cell division?
• A. chromatin
• B. cytoplasm
• C. mitosis
• D. cell cycle
• What is the role of cyclins in a cell?
• A. to control the movement of
microtubules.
• B. to signal the cell to divide
• C. to stimulate the breakdown of the
nuclear membrane.
• D. to cause the nucleolus to
disappear
• What is the role of cyclins in a cell?
• A. to control the movement of
microtubules.
• B. to signal the cell to divide
• C. to stimulate the breakdown of the
nuclear membrane.
• D. to cause the nucleolus to
disappear
Figure 6-1.
• Which of the atoms pictured in Figure 6-1 is
most likely to form an ion?
• a. C
• b. Na
• c. O
• d. they are all equally likely to form an ion
Figure 6-1.
• Which of the atoms pictured in Figure 6-1 is
most likely to form an ion?
• a. C
• b. Na
• c. O
• d. they are all equally likely to form an ion
• Which substance has at least one
ionic bond?
• a. CH4
• b. NaCl
• c. H2O
• d. O2
• Which substance has at least one
ionic bond?
• a. CH4
• b. NaCl
• c. H2O
• d. O2
• Consider the energy diagram for a chemical reaction in Figure
6-3. Overall, is energy released or absorbed?
• a. absorbed, because the energy level increases during the
reaction
• b. absorbed, because the energy level of the products is
greater than that of the reactants
• c. released, because the reaction is initiated by the addition
of heat
• d. released because the energy level of the reactants is
greater than that of the products
• Consider the energy diagram for a chemical reaction in Figure
6-3. Overall, is energy released or absorbed?
• a. absorbed, because the energy level increases during the
reaction
• b. absorbed, because the energy level of the products is
greater than that of the reactants
• c. released, because the reaction is initiated by the addition
of heat
• d. released because the energy level of the reactants is
greater than that of the products
• How does an enzyme influence a biological
reaction?
• a. It increases the net energy difference between
reactants and products.
• b. It decreases the activation energy necessary to
initiate the chemical change.
• c. It increases the kinetic energy of reactants,
thereby increasing their tendency to collide.
• d. It decreases the kinetic energy of reactants,
enabling them to undergo chemical change more
easily.
• How does an enzyme influence a biological
reaction?
• a. It increases the net energy difference between
reactants and products.
• b. It decreases the activation energy necessary to
initiate the chemical change.
• c. It increases the kinetic energy of reactants,
thereby increasing their tendency to collide.
• d. It decreases the kinetic energy of reactants,
enabling them to undergo chemical change more
easily.
• When added to water, how does an acid
affect the pH and H+ concentration?
• a. Both pH and H+ decrease.
• b. Both pH and H+ increase.
• c. The pH decreases while the H+
increases.
• d. The pH increases while the H+
decreases.
• When added to water, how does an acid
affect the pH and H+ concentration?
• a. Both pH and H+ decrease.
• b. Both pH and H+ increase.
• c. The pH decreases while the H+
increases.
• d. The pH increases while the H+
decreases.
• Glycogen, used to store energy in
the liver and muscle tissue, is an
example of which type of
molecule?
• a. carbohydrate
• b. saturated fatty acid
• c. protein
• d. steroid
• Glycogen, used to store energy in
the liver and muscle tissue, is an
example of which type of
molecule?
• a. carbohydrate
• b. saturated fatty acid
• c. protein
• d. steroid
• Which of the following is a
substrate used in cellular
respiration.
• a. carbon dioxide
• b. the product of photosynthesis
• c. rubisco
• d. ion channels
• Which of the following is a
substrate used in cellular
respiration.
• a. carbon dioxide
• b. the product of photosynthesis
• c. rubisco
• d. ion channels
• Which of the following is an accurate description of
how structure enhances function in the thylakoid?
• a. Thylakoid membranes have a large surface area
that provides the space needed to hold large
numbers of electron-transporting molecules.
• b. Thylakoid membranes serve as an impermeable
surface that prevents the flow of electrons into the
stroma.
• c. Thylakoid membranes can open and close
depending on humidity to prevent evaporation
from the cell.
• d. Thylakoid membranes act as an oxygen barrier
allowing the aerobic steps of photosynthesis to
proceed.
• Which of the following is an accurate description of
how structure enhances function in the thylakoid?
• a. Thylakoid membranes have a large surface area
that provides the space needed to hold large
numbers of electron-transporting molecules.
• b. Thylakoid membranes serve as an impermeable
surface that prevents the flow of electrons into the
stroma.
• c. Thylakoid membranes can open and close
depending on humidity to prevent evaporation
from the cell.
• d. Thylakoid membranes act as an oxygen barrier
allowing the aerobic steps of photosynthesis to
proceed.
• Figure 9-2
• Which of the cells depicted in the line graph in
Figure 9-2 are most likely cancerous?
• a. A
c.
C
• b. B
d. D
• Figure 9-2
• Which of the cells depicted in the line graph in
Figure 9-2 are most likely cancerous?
• a. A
c.
C
• b. B
d. D
• Which of the following does not
occur as a cell grows larger and larger
in size?
• a. difficulty obtaining nutrients
• b. difficulty eliminating wastes
• c. ratio of surface area to volume
increases
• d. diffusion across the cell membrane
is impaired
• Which of the following does not
occur as a cell grows larger and larger
in size?
• a. difficulty obtaining nutrients
• b. difficulty eliminating wastes
• c. ratio of surface area to volume
increases
• d. diffusion across the cell membrane
is impaired
• Why is the synthesis stage called this?
• a. because protein synthesis is taking
place
• b. because DNA synthesis is taking
place
• c. because it combines several
smaller stages into one
• d. because the chromosomes come
together
• Why is the synthesis stage called this?
• a. because protein synthesis is taking
place
• b. because DNA synthesis is taking
place
• c. because it combines several
smaller stages into one
• d. because the chromosomes come
together
• The cell cycle is regulated by
• a. cyclins
• b.hormones
• c. enzymes
• d.sugars
• The cell cycle is regulated by
• a. cyclins
• b.hormones
• c. enzymes
• d.sugars
•True or False? An ionic
bond is formed when two
atoms share electrons.
•True or False? An ionic
bond is formed when two
atoms share electrons.
•True or False? Diffusion
over large distances is slow
and inefficient because it
relies on random
movement of molecules
and ions.
•True or False? Diffusion
over large distances is slow
and inefficient because it
relies on random
movement of molecules
and ions.
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