Unit 3 Vocabulary

Unit 3 Vocabulary
1. atom
2. element
3. electron
4. neutron
5. molecule
6. compound
7. ion
8. chemical bond
9. chemical reaction
10. pH scale
11. acid (H+ ion)/ acidic
12. base (OHion)/alkaline/basic
13. neutralize
14. buffer
15. buffering capacity
16. catalyst
17. enzyme
18. substrate
19. active site
20. catalyst
21. enzyme-substrate
22. randomness/disorder
23. photosynthesis
24. chlorophyll
25. cellular respiration
26. organic compound
27. inorganic compound
28. ATP
29. ADP
30. synthesize (synthesis)
31. decomposition
32. hydrolyze/hydrolysis
33. carbon cycle
34. matter
35. Energy
36. Subunit
37. carbohydrate
38. monosaccharide (simple
39. disaccharide
40. polysaccharide
41. Starch
42. Cellulose
43. lipid
44. fat
45. fatty acid
46. cholesterol
47. nucleic acid
48. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
49. DNA (deoxyribonucleic
50. protein
51. amino acid
52. polypeptide
53. poly54. mono55. di-
Unit 3 Vocabulary
atom- the basic unit of matter;
composed of protons, neutrons, and
element- pure substance made of
one type of atom; more than 100
types; arranged according to
properties in the periodic table
Unit 3 Vocabulary
electron- negatively charged particle around the nucleus of an atom; has
very little mass
neutron- neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Unit 3 Vocabulary
molecule- smallest unit of a compound; multiple atoms bonded together
(Ex: O2, H2O)
6. compound- two or more elements bonded together (Ex: H2O, CO2, H2O2)
Unit 3 Vocabulary
7. ion- an atom with a positive or negative charge; # of e- does not equal #
of protons (lost or gained e-)
Unit 3 Vocabulary
chemical bond- the forces that hold
atoms to one another in molecules;
represented by lines in models
9. chemical reaction- process that changes one set of chemicals into another
(Ex: photosynthesis)
Unit 3
10. pH scale- measure of
H+ ions, acidity; ‘power of
11. acid (H+ ion)/acidicsolution with lots of H+ ions
(Ex: HCl)
12. base (OHion)/alkaline/basicsolution with los of OH- ions
(Ex: NaOH)
Unit 3 Vocabulary
13. neutralize- combining an acid and a base to form water
14. buffer- any substance that resists a change in pH
15. buffering capacity- the ability to resist a change in pH
Unit 3 Vocabulary
16. catalyst- substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
17. enzyme- a biological catalysts that speeds up chemical reactions (Ex:
catalase, lactase)
Unit 3 Vocabulary
18. substrate- molecule that is changed by the enzyme
19. active site- part of an enzyme that attracts and holds molecules that have
the right shape
21. enzyme-substrate complex- when an enzyme is bound to an appropriate
substrate and bonds are being broken and reformed
Unit 3 Vocabulary
22. randomness/disorder- the idea that non-livings are always moving to a
state of randomness while living things, on the other hand, invest energy to
create organization
Unit 3 Vocabulary
23. photosynthesis- process used by plants to create sugar using light energy
24. chlorophyll- the green pigment in plants that
captures light in photosynthesis
Unit 3 Vocabulary
26. organic compound- compounds containing C and H; come from living
27. inorganic compound- compounds that do not contain C and H; don’t
come from living things
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28. ATP- adenosine triphosphate;
important energy transfer compound
in organisms
29. ADP- adenosine diphosphate;
ATP that has had a phosphate
removed to release energy
Released Energy
Unit 3 Vocabulary
30. synthesize (synthesis)- combine or put together
31. decomposition- breaking down or taking apart
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32. hydrolyze/hydrolysis- the
breaking of bonds by adding
water (Ex: decomposing starch
into glucose)
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33. carbon cycle- how carbon is
exchanged through the
environment; includes
photosynthesis & cellular
Unit 3 Vocabulary
34. matter- a physical
substance that has mass and
takes up space
35. energy- the ability to do
work; stored in chemical bonds
or found in light
36. subunit- a part of
something (ex: a subunit of a
polysaccharide is a
Unit 3 Vocabulary
37. carbohydrate- a macromolecule that has H and O
in the same ratio as water, as well as carbon; ‘hydrated
carbons;’ (Ex: sugar, starch, cellulose, chitin)
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38. monosaccharide (simple sugar)- a single molecule of sugar
39. disaccharide- two linked sugars
40. polysaccharide- many linked sugars
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41. starch- complex
carbohydrate used for
energy storage in plants;
long chain of sugars
42. cellulose- complex
carbohydrate used as
building material in plants;
found in cell walls; long
chain of sugars
Unit 3 Vocabulary
43. lipid- macromolecule that is mostly
composed of C and H; includes fats, oils,
44. fat- lipid made up of fatty acids and
glycerol; used for energy storage,
cushioning, insulation
45. fatty acid- chain of linked carbons with
many H bonds; component of lipids
46. cholesterol- a type of lipid made by
animals; found in cell membranes
Unit 3 Vocabulary
47. nucleic acid- macromolecule
that carries genetic material; basic
unit is nucleotide
48. RNA (ribonucleic acid)- type of
nucleic acid used in making
proteins; has ribose sugar; singlestranded
49. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)inherited genetic material that
contains instructions for life; has
deoxyribose sugar; doublestranded
Unit 3 Vocabulary
50. protein- macromolecule made of amino acids; contains C, O, H and N;
found in muscles; used for growth and repair
51. amino acid- unit of proteins; 20 types; linked together to form
polypeptide chain
52. polypeptide- long chain of many linked amino acids; unfolded protein
Amino Acids
Unit 3 Vocabulary
53. poly- prefix meaning many;
ex: polypeptide
54. mono- prefix meaning one;
ex: monosaccharide
55. di- prefix meaning two; ex: