OGT Boot Camp LIFE SCIENCE

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OGT Boot Camp
LIFE SCIENCE
Ecology – Flow of Energy
Based on this diagram, an
ecologist would most likely
conclude that a decrease in
the fox population would
result in…
A. an increase in the owl
population.
B. a decrease in the rabbit
population.
C. a decrease in the chipmunk
population.
D. an increase in the
grasshopper population.
Ecology – Earth’s Biomes
Most climatic variations are due to the uneven heating of
Earth’s surface as it orbits the sun
North Pole
60ºN
Polar zone
(cold with permafrost)
Low angle of
incoming sunlight
Temperate zone
30ºN
Tropic of
Cancer
(mild temps with seasonal variation)
Tropical zone
(warm wet climate)
Sunlight strikes
most directly
0º (equator)
Temperate zone
Tropic of
Capricorn
30ºS
(mild temps with seasonal variation)
Polar zone
(cold with permafrost)
Low angle of
incoming sunlight
Atmosphere
60ºS
South Pole
Biomes are determined by average
temperature and precipitation
Describe one
similarity and
one difference
between the
temperate rain
forest and the
temperate
forest.
Ecology – Population Dynamics
What limiting factors will affect the carrying capacity?
Cell Biology – The Building Blocks
Cell Theory:
All living things are made of
cells. Cells are the basic unit of
structure and function and all
cells come from other cells.
Characteristics of living things:
• Made of cells.
• Shows organization.
• Displays growth.
• Reproduces.
• Responds to stimuli.
• Requires energy.
• Maintains homeostasis.
• Makes adaptations.
Cell Biology – Diffusion & Osmosis
The process that moves materials from an area of
HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration.
Cell Biology - Organelles
You should know ‘em by now!
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Cell Biology – Photosynthesis
and Respiration
Cell Biology –
Mitosis
Cells divide using
mitosis. The result is
two identical
daughter cells.
The cells are diploid,
meaning they have
two sets of
chromosomes, one
from each parent.
Genetics –
Meiosis
Many organisms need to
create reproductive cells
(like sperm & eggs).
These are called
gametes.
The product of meiosis is
four gametes. Each has
one set of chromosomes,
making it haploid.
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Genetics – Human Inheritance
Who’s
got it?
Genetics – Gregor Mendel the “Father of Genetics”
Mendel studied pea plants to
discover basic rules of heredity.
Punnett Squares

Alleles – Pairs of a gene or trait.
Dominant – Takes over.
Recessive - Stays hidden.
Phenotype - Appearance.
Genotype – Genetic makeup.
Using the pedigree, draw a punnett square, to
answer the following question.
What is the percent chance that person U and her
husband will have a child with sickle cell disease?
B = normal allele
b = sickle cell allele
Possible
Genotypes / Phenotypes
Punnett Squares can
do more than 1 cross
at a time! 
Sometimes alleles show
Incomplete
Dominance.
Red + White = Pink
Tools to keep track:
 Pedigree
Karyotype
Genetic Phenotype
Trees
Genetics - DNA
DNA in various forms 
DNA
Double Helix
Histones are
wrapped, forming
DNA Replication – the original
“unzips” and two chains form.
Nucleosomes.
Chromatin
Coiled
Chromatin
Supercoiled
Chromatin
Chromosome
(in Mitosis)
Diversity – Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
Those best suited to an environment will survive.
They will reproduce and establish their niche.
Diversity - Natural Selection drives Evolution
Charles Darwin
1809-1882
Diversity - Classification
Scientific Name: Rana catesbeiana
Common Name: American Bullfrog
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class:
Amphibia
Order:
Anura
Family:
Ranidae
Genus:
Rana
Species: R. catesbeiana
Diversity – Classification & Tree of Life
Cladogram – a model
to show evolutionary
history.
Taxonomy – a system
of organization.
Such as: D,K,P,C,O,F,G,S
Diversity – Dichotomous Key
To which species does the
insect belong?
•
•
•
Problematica alva
Problematica brancus
Problematica cantrellis
•
Problematica differensis
Test Taking Tip:
Reading a science question is not
like reading anything else.
Look for the details. Read it
several times!
1. Skim-read the passage or chart.
2. Read the question carefully.
3. Go back to the passage or chart.
Test Taking Tip
Budget your time…
1. Don’t spend to long
on one question.
2. Mark the ones you
want to come back to.
3. Go back after you
finish and work on the
ones you marked.
4. Answer everything!
Some of you owe me some money!
Any questions?
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