OGT Boot Camp LIFE SCIENCE Ecology – Flow of Energy Based on this diagram, an ecologist would most likely conclude that a decrease in the fox population would result in… A. an increase in the owl population. B. a decrease in the rabbit population. C. a decrease in the chipmunk population. D. an increase in the grasshopper population. Ecology – Earth’s Biomes Most climatic variations are due to the uneven heating of Earth’s surface as it orbits the sun North Pole 60ºN Polar zone (cold with permafrost) Low angle of incoming sunlight Temperate zone 30ºN Tropic of Cancer (mild temps with seasonal variation) Tropical zone (warm wet climate) Sunlight strikes most directly 0º (equator) Temperate zone Tropic of Capricorn 30ºS (mild temps with seasonal variation) Polar zone (cold with permafrost) Low angle of incoming sunlight Atmosphere 60ºS South Pole Biomes are determined by average temperature and precipitation Describe one similarity and one difference between the temperate rain forest and the temperate forest. Ecology – Population Dynamics What limiting factors will affect the carrying capacity? Cell Biology – The Building Blocks Cell Theory: All living things are made of cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function and all cells come from other cells. Characteristics of living things: • Made of cells. • Shows organization. • Displays growth. • Reproduces. • Responds to stimuli. • Requires energy. • Maintains homeostasis. • Makes adaptations. Cell Biology – Diffusion & Osmosis The process that moves materials from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration. Cell Biology - Organelles You should know ‘em by now! Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell Biology – Photosynthesis and Respiration Cell Biology – Mitosis Cells divide using mitosis. The result is two identical daughter cells. The cells are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. Genetics – Meiosis Many organisms need to create reproductive cells (like sperm & eggs). These are called gametes. The product of meiosis is four gametes. Each has one set of chromosomes, making it haploid. Mitosis vs. Meiosis Genetics – Human Inheritance Who’s got it? Genetics – Gregor Mendel the “Father of Genetics” Mendel studied pea plants to discover basic rules of heredity. Punnett Squares Alleles – Pairs of a gene or trait. Dominant – Takes over. Recessive - Stays hidden. Phenotype - Appearance. Genotype – Genetic makeup. Using the pedigree, draw a punnett square, to answer the following question. What is the percent chance that person U and her husband will have a child with sickle cell disease? B = normal allele b = sickle cell allele Possible Genotypes / Phenotypes Punnett Squares can do more than 1 cross at a time! Sometimes alleles show Incomplete Dominance. Red + White = Pink Tools to keep track: Pedigree Karyotype Genetic Phenotype Trees Genetics - DNA DNA in various forms DNA Double Helix Histones are wrapped, forming DNA Replication – the original “unzips” and two chains form. Nucleosomes. Chromatin Coiled Chromatin Supercoiled Chromatin Chromosome (in Mitosis) Diversity – Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection Those best suited to an environment will survive. They will reproduce and establish their niche. Diversity - Natural Selection drives Evolution Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Diversity - Classification Scientific Name: Rana catesbeiana Common Name: American Bullfrog Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Amphibia Order: Anura Family: Ranidae Genus: Rana Species: R. catesbeiana Diversity – Classification & Tree of Life Cladogram – a model to show evolutionary history. Taxonomy – a system of organization. Such as: D,K,P,C,O,F,G,S Diversity – Dichotomous Key To which species does the insect belong? • • • Problematica alva Problematica brancus Problematica cantrellis • Problematica differensis Test Taking Tip: Reading a science question is not like reading anything else. Look for the details. Read it several times! 1. Skim-read the passage or chart. 2. Read the question carefully. 3. Go back to the passage or chart. Test Taking Tip Budget your time… 1. Don’t spend to long on one question. 2. Mark the ones you want to come back to. 3. Go back after you finish and work on the ones you marked. 4. Answer everything! Some of you owe me some money! Any questions?