Cellular Classification & Organelles: A Look at the Endomembrane System Biology 111 Holyoke Walsh Cells • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IcevP5tk WH0&feature=related COMPARING CELLS • The size & shape of a cell relates to its function. Cells • All cells are classified as either 1. Prokaryote 2. Eukaryote Prokaryote Cells • no membrane bound nucleus, chromosomes grouped together in an area called the "nucleoid" • no membrane bound organelles • smaller than eukaryotes • have cell wall and cell membrane, some have a capsule on the outside • ribosomes make protein • consist of bacteria and archaebacteria • Appendages include: fimbriae/pili, flagella *pili are usually longer and fewer than fimbriae, both function for attachment and recognition of host cells (pili has a function for sexual reproduction) Figure 4.4a E. coli Eukaryotes • • • • has a membrane bound nucleus has membrane bound organelles in cytoplasm Organelles perform specific functions much larger than prokaryotes Organisms within the animal, plant, fungi and protista kingdoms are all eukaryotes We will be spending a lot of time on organelles and their functions. Figure 4.6b Figure 4.7b Prokaryote vs Eukaryote Cells Endosymbiosis theory: All organelles seem to share many properties with bacteria. Lynn Margulis proposed endosymbiont hypothesis: that organelles derived from ancient colonization of large bacteria (became the eukaryotic cell) by smaller bacteria (became the mitochondria, chloroplast, etc.) Symbiosis = "living together". *Mitochondria & Chloroplasts have their own DNA Animation at Microbiological Concepts Commonalities…of all cells!! • • • • Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Chromosomes (DNA) Ribosomes Key Differences? • The location of their DNA; membrane bound organelles • Prokaryote = nucleoid region • Eukaryote = nucleus Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryote or Eukaryote?? Prokaryote or Eukaryote?? Prokaryote or Eukaryote?? Eukaryotes • In addition to the plasma membrane at its outer surface, a eukaryotic cell has extensive & elaborately arranged internal membranes, which divide the cell into compartments. • These provide different local environments that facilitate specific metabolic functions, so incompatible processes can go on simultaneously in a single cell • The plasma and organelle membranes participate directly in the cell’s metabolism b/c many enzymes are built right into the membranes themselves. Cell Membranes..in general • Phospholipid bilayer • Embedded proteins • Each type of membrane has a unique composition of lipids and proteins suited to that membrane’s specific function Ex: enzymes embedded in the mitochondrial membrane function in cellular respiration…which creates the ATP energy our cells need to function! Cell Membrane Pg 64 Eukaryotes…genetic info… • Two cellular components involved with the genetic control of the cell are the NUCLEUS & the RIBOSOMES NUCLEUS The Nucleus The Nucleus • Nuclear envelope contains nuclear pores for some things to enter and exit (nucleoplasm within) • Chromatin is DNA and proteins, when the cell begins to divide, chromatin condenses and forms chromosomes • DNA remains in the nucleus, it sends instructions to the cytoplasm via messenger RNA • RNA directs the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm • Nucleolus assembles ribosomes within the nucleus, ribosomes contain the "tools" to construct proteins Chromosomes – made of DNA/Protein! • DNA: Polymer of millions of nucleotides Nucleotide = Deoxyribose Sugar (pentose) +Phosphate + Nitrogen Base One Strand of DNA • The backbone of the molecule is alternating phosphates and deoxyribose sugar • The teeth are nitrogenous bases. phosphate deoxyribose bases 29 DNA Double Helix Bases: Cytosine Thymine Adenine Guanine T G http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qy8dk5iS1f 0 C T A G Ribosomes • Made of some RNA (genetic info) and Protein • each is composed of two subunits, one large and one small • Non-membranous organelles • Vary in size (smaller in prokaryotes) • Main function is to carry out protein synthesis. Ribosomes cont… • Cells that have high rates of protein synthesis have particularly high rates of ribosomes • Located in the cytoplasm/ER (structurally identical) • Free ribosomes – function within the cytosol (ie. enzymes that catalyze reactions) • Attached ribosomes – generally destined for insertion into organelles membranes or for export (cells that secrete enzymes) • Why does the human pancreas have millions of ribosomes?