Cell Organelles and Features Plasma/Cell Membrane • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Structure: • Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins • Organization: • Phospholipids form a bilayer • Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model • Membrane’s lipids and proteins move laterally within the bilayer • The “pattern” of the mosaic is always changing Function of the Membrane Components 1. Phospholipids a. b. Control what enter and exit the cell Give structure to the cell 2. Proteins a. b. c. d. Control what enter and exit the cell Interact with external environment Facilitate chemical reactions Receive signals 3. Cholesterol a. Maintain fluidity of cell Nucleus • Structure: 1. 2. Nucleoplasm Nuclear envelope with nuclear pores • Double membrane 3. Nucleolus • Contains DNA Functions of Nucleus 1. Nucleoplasm • Surrounds and protects DNA 2. Nuclear envelope and nuclear pores • Controls what enters and exits the nucleus 3. Nucleolus • Production of ribosomes (structures that synthesize proteins) Ribosomes • NOT technically organelles • Made of proteins and RNA, but have NO membrane • Some ribosomes are free-floating in cytoplasm others are bound to the endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • Structure: system of membranous tubes and sacs (cristernae) • Two types of ER: Rough and Smooth • Rough ER is covered with ribosomes • Smooth ER lacks ribosomes Function of the ER • Both types of ER serve as intracellular highway along which molecules move from one part of the cell to the other • RER • Produces phospholipids and proteins • SER • Build lipids, such as cholesterol and steroid hormones • Detoxifies blood and poisons Golgi Apparatus • Structure: system of flattened, membranous sacs • Function: 1. 2. Modifies proteins that it receives from the RER Exports protein to the appropriate location Vesicles • Structure: • small, spherically shaped sacs • Surrounded by single membrane • Vesicles are classified by their contents • Often migrate and merge with plasma membrane to release contents • Types of Vesicles: lysosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, endosomes Lysosomes • Contain digestive enzymes • Created by the Golgi apparatus • Responsible for breaking down cells when it is time for the cell to die = autolysis Food Vacuoles are referred to as endosomes Peroxisomes • Contain enzymes that breakdown alcohol and drugs into peroxide (H2O2) • Neutralize free radicals • Not created by the Golgi apparatus • Special type of peroxisome = glycoxysomes • Found in seeds of some plants Ribosomes, ER, Golgi, and Vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis 1. 2. 3. 4. Proteins are assembled by ribosomes on the RER Vesicles transport proteins to the Golgi apparatus Golgi modify proteins and package them into new vesicles Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release proteins outside the cell 5. Vesicles containing enzymes that remain inside the cell form lysosomes, peroxisomes, endosomes, etc. Mitochondria • Structure: • Outer and inner membrane • Inner membrane has many folds = cristae • Contain DNA • Function: transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP (cellular respiration) Cytoskeleton • Structure: Network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross in the cytosol • Three major components: 1. 2. 3. Microtubules Microfilaments Intermediate filaments • Function: 1. 2. Give shape and support to the cell Acts as a system of internal tracks for intracellular movement Cytoskeleton Cilia and Flagella • Structure: Hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell • Part of the cytoskeleton • Function: Assist in movement Centrioles • Structure: two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles • In the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope • Part of the cytoskeleton of animal cells • Function: organize microtubules during cell division Do all cells contain all of these organelles in the same concentration? What organelle(s) would you find a lot of in muscle cells? What organelle(s) would you find a lot of white blood cells? What organelle(s) would you find in a skin cell?