HAPLOID PLANTS

advertisement
PRESENTED BY:-DEEPIKA
Haploids are the plants with a single
set of (n) no. of chromosome in its
cell. They have only the half set of
chromosome.
 Haploid
plants from pollen grains were first
produced by MAHESHWARI and GUHA in 1964
by culturing anthers of Datura.
 The
technique was further develop by J.P
NITCH and C. NITCH. They showed that
isolated microspore of TOBACCO produce
complete plants.
 Haploid
plants can be produced by anther
culture or microspore culture.
 When H.Vulgare are crossed with H.Bolbosum
are selectively eliminated from developing
embryos. Culture of 8-10 days old embryos
enable the recovery of large no. of haploid
seedling in both the cases.
Hordeum vulgare
(2n=14;VV)
×
Hordeum bulbosam
(2n=14;BB)
Zygote
(2n=14VB)
Young embryo
Haploid plant of H.vulgare
Diploid plants of barley
The
donor plant.
The
composition of nutrient
media.
Physical
factors.
The chromosome number of haploid plant is
readily doubled by using colchicines the
plants so obtained are called DIPLOID
PLANTS.
Diploid plants are completely homozygous.
Homozygous lines are produced during
breeding of both self and cross pollinated
crops time approach takes at least 6 yrs.
PARENT A
Х
PARENT B
F1
HAPLOID PLANTS
DIPLOID
PLANTS
SUPERIOR
PROGENIES
SUPERIOR
 When
a cell divides by meiosis ,it ends up
with only half amount of DNA it had
before.That is HAPLOID CELL.
 When
two haploid join together to make one
new cell with twice the amount of DNA ,That
is DIPLOID CELL
 All
the living creatures that use meiosis have
to spend some time as haploid cell and some
time as diploid cell. This is called alternation
of generation.
 Some
creates spend most of their time as
haploid cell and only become diploid for a
short time before quickly going back to being
haploid again.e.g Moss
 GAMETOCLONAL
VARIATION:Haploid plants regenerated from
callus cultures show genetic variation i.e.
gametoclonal variation.
Such variation may be subjected to selection
at haploid level, the chromosome no. of
selected
plant may be double to obtain
homozygous plants.
 Scheme
involving extraction of dihaploids
from tetraploid species, breeding level and
then chromosome doubling of selected
dihaploid lines to obtain tetraploid varieties.
A
new technique hybrid rice varieties could
boost the country rice production. For
increase the country rice increase through
faster development of hybrid rice varieties,
agriculture science have reduced the time
gap for breeding new rice varieties through
the new method that is diploid breeding
technique.
 This short time required for breeding a new
variety for 10-6 yrs.
 Haploids
have been effectively coupled with
breeding programmes of crops like
rice,wheat,tobacco barley,etc.resulted in the
development of several varieties.
 In
Canada, two barley varieties, Mingo and
Gwylan ,produced using the H. bulbosum
route were superior to powdery mildew and
barley yellow mosaic virus and other yield
attributes.
HAPLOID PRODUCTION ROUTE
Anther culture
CROP
Rice
Anther culture
Wheat
Anther culture
Tobacco
VARIETIES
Tanfeng 1, Xin Xiu
Hua Yu 2,Ta Be 78
Lung Hua 1,
Jing Hua1
Tan Yu1
COUNTRY
China
China
 Production
of homozygous DH lines using at
least 4 yrs.
 Haploid may be useful for isolation of
mutants.
 Diploid lines are useful tool for genome
mapping.
 Haploid plants of F hybrid with disease
resistance can be screened to develop
resistance variety
 In
many crops, the application of this
technique is not available since the
technique for haploid production is not
available.
 In
many crops its application is not feasible
because large no. of haploid plants are not
easily obtained.
Download
Related flashcards

RNA

17 cards

Population genetics

25 cards

Chromosomes

11 cards

Genes

38 cards

Nucleobases

21 cards

Create Flashcards