Intro to Scanners

advertisement
The Front End
Source
code
Front
End
IR
Back
End
Machine
code
Errors
The purpose of the front end is to deal with the input language
• Perform a membership test: code  source language?
• Is the program well-formed (semantically) ?
• Build an IR version of the code for the rest of the compiler
The front end deals with form (syntax) & meaning (semantics)
0
The Front End
Source
code
tokens
Scanner
IR
Parser
Errors
Implementation Strategy
Scanning
Parsing
Specify Syntax
regular expressions
context-free
grammars
Implement
Recognizer
deterministic finite
automaton
push-down
automaton
Perform Work
Actions on transitions in automaton
1
The Front End
stream of
characters
Scanner
microsyntax
stream of
tokens
Parser
syntax
IR +
annotations
Errors
Why separate the scanner and the parser?
• Scanner classifies words
• Parser constructs grammatical derivations
• Parsing is harder and slower
Scanner is only pass
that touches every
character of the input.
Separation simplifies the implementation
token is a pair
• Scanners are simple
<part of speech, lexeme >
• Scanner leads to a faster, smaller parser
2
The Big Picture
The front end deals with syntax
• Language syntax is specified with parts of speech, not words
• Syntax checking matches parts of speech against a grammar
Simple expression grammar
1. goal  expr
2. expr  expr op term
3.
| term
S = goal
4. term  number
5.
| id
N = { goal, expr, term, op }
6. op
7.
 +
|
–
T = { number, id, +, - }
P = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }
parts of speech
syntactic variables
The scanner turns a stream of characters into a stream
of words, and classifies them with their part of speech.
3
The Big Picture
Why study automatic scanner construction?
• Avoid writing scanners by hand
• Harness theory
compile
time
design
time
source code
specifications
Scanner
parts of speech & words
tables
or code
Scanner
Generator
Represent
words as
indices into a
global table
Specifications written as
Goals:
“regular expressions”
• To simplify specification & implementation of scanners
• To understand the underlying techniques and technologies
4
Regular Expressions
We constrain programming languages so that the spelling of a
word always implies its part of speech
The rules that impose this mapping form a regular language
Regular expressions (REs) describe regular languages
Regular Expression (over alphabet )
•  is a RE denoting the set {}
• If a is in , then a is a RE denoting {a}
• If x and y are REs denoting L(x) and L(y) then
— x | y is an RE denoting L(x)  L(y)
— xy is an RE denoting L(x)L(y)
— x* is an RE denoting L(x)*
Precedence is closure,
then concatenation,
then alternation
5
Regular Expressions
How do these operators help?
Regular Expression (over alphabet )
•  is a RE denoting the set {}
• If a is in , then a is a RE denoting {a}
 the spelling of any specific word is an RE
• If x and y are REs denoting L(x) and L(y) then
— x |y is an RE denoting L(x)  L(y)
 any finite list of words can be written as an RE
— xy is an RE denoting L(x)L(y)
— x* is an RE denoting L(x)*
( w0 | w1 | … | wn )
 we can use concatenation & closure to write more concise patterns
and to specify infinite sets that have finite descriptions
6
Examples of Regular Expressions
Identifiers:
Letter
 (a|b|c| … |z|A|B|C| … |Z)
Digit
 (0|1|2| … |9)
Identifier  Letter ( Letter | Digit )*
Numbers:
Integer  (+|-|) (0| (1|2|3| … |9)(Digit *) )
Decimal  Integer . Digit *
Real
 ( Integer | Decimal ) E (+|-|) Digit *
Complex  ( Real , Real )
Numbers can get much more complicated!
underlining indicates
a letter in the input
stream
7
Regular Expressions
We use regular expressions to specify the mapping of
words to parts of speech for the lexical analyzer
Using results from automata theory and theory of algorithms,
we can automate construction of recognizers from REs
 We study REs and associated theory to automate scanner
construction !
 Fortunately, the automatic techiques lead to fast scanners
 used in text editors, URL filtering software, …
8
Example
Consider the problem of recognizing ILOC register names
Register  r (0|1|2| … | 9) (0|1|2| … | 9)*
• Allows registers of arbitrary number
• Requires at least one digit
RE corresponds to a recognizer (or DFA)
(0|1|2| … 9)
(0|1|2| … 9)
r
S0
S1
S2
Recognizer for Register
Transitions on other inputs go to an error state, se
9
Example
(continued)
DFA operation
• Start in state S0 & make transitions on each input character
• DFA accepts a word x iff x leaves it in a final state (S2 )
(0|1|2| … 9)
(0|1|2| … 9)
r
S0
S1
S2
Recognizer for Register
So,
• r17 takes it through s0, s1, s2 and accepts
• r takes it through s0, s1 and fails
• a takes it straight to se
10
Example
(continued)
To be useful, the recognizer must be converted into code
Char  next character
State  s0
while (Char  EOF)
State  (State,Char)
Char  next character
if (State is a final state )
then report success
else report failure
Skeleton recognizer
All
others

r
0,1,2,3,4,
5,6,7,8,9
s0
s1
se
se
s1
se
s2
se
s2
se
s2
se
se
se
se
se
Table encoding the RE
O(1) cost per character (or per transition)
11
Example
(continued)
We can add “actions” to each transition
Char  next character
State  s0
while (Char  EOF)
Next  (State,Char)
Act  (State,Char)
perform action Act
State  Next
Char  next character
if (State is a final state )
then report success
else report failure
Skeleton recognizer


r
0,1,2,3,4,
All
5,6,7,8,9 others
s0
s1
start
se
error
se
error
s1
se
error
s2
add
se
error
s2
se
error
s2
add
se
error
se
se
error
se
error
se
error
Table encoding RE
Typical action is to capture the lexeme
12
What if we need a tighter specification?
r Digit Digit* allows arbitrary numbers
• Accepts r00000
• Accepts r99999
• What if we want to limit it to r0 through r31 ?
Write a tighter regular expression
— Register  r ( (0|1|2) (Digit | ) | (4|5|6|7|8|9) | (3|30|31) )
— Register  r0|r1|r2| … |r31|r00|r01|r02| … |r09
Produces a more complex DFA
• DFA has more states
• DFA has same cost per transition
• DFA has same basic implementation
(or per character)
More states implies a larger table. The larger table might have mattered
when computers had 128 KB or 640 KB of RAM. Today, when a cell phone has
13
megabytes and a laptop has gigabytes, the concern seems outdated.
Tighter register specification
(continued)
The DFA for
Register  r ( (0|1|2) (Digit | ) | (4|5|6|7|8|9) | (3|30|31) )
(0|1|2| … 9)
S2
S3
0,1,2
S0
r
S1
3
S5
0,1
S6
4,5,6,7,8,9
S4
• Accepts a more constrained set of register names
• Same set of actions, more states
14
Tighter register specification
(continued)

r
0,1
2
3
4-9
All
others
s0
s1
se
se
se
se
se
s1
se
s2
s2
s5
s4
se
s2
se
s3
s3
s3
s3
se
s3
se
se
se
se
se
se
s4
se
se
se
se
se
se
s5
se
s6
se
se
se
se
s6
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
se
Table encoding RE for the tighter register specification
15
Tighter register specification
State
Action
0
r
1
start
1
e
2
e
3,4
e
5
e
6
e
e
e
(continued)
0,1
2
3
4,5,6
7,8,9
other
e
e
e
e
e
2
2
5
4
add
add
add
add
3
3
3
3
add
add
add
add
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
6
add
e
e
exit
e
exit
e
exit
e
exit
e
(0|1|2| … 9)
S2
S3
0,1,2
S0
r
S1
3
S5
0,1
S6
16
4,5,6,7,8,9
S4
Table-Driven Scanners
Common strategy is to simulate DFA execution
• Table + Skeleton Scanner
— So far, we have used a simplified skeleton
state  s0 ;
while (state  exit) do
char  NextChar( )
state  (state,char);
// read next character
// take the transition
• In practice, the skeleton is more complex
— Character classification for table compression
s0
— Building the lexeme
— Recognizing subexpressions
0…9
r
0…9
sf
 Practice is to combine all the REs into one DFA
 Must recognize individual words without hitting EOF
17
Table-Driven Scanners
Character Classification
• Group together characters by their actions in the DFA
— Combine identical columns in the transition table, 
— Indexing  by class shrinks the table
state  s0 ;
while (state  exit) do
char  NextChar( )
cat  CharCat(char)
state  (state,cat)
// read next character
// classify character
// take the transition
• Idea works well in ASCII (or EBCDIC)
— compact, byte-oriented character sets
— limited range of values
• Not clear how it extends to larger character sets (unicode)
18
Table-Driven Scanners
Building the Lexeme
• Scanner produces syntactic category
(part of speech)
— Most applications want the lexeme (word), too
state  s0
lexeme  empty string
while (state  exit) do
char  NextChar( )
lexeme  lexeme + char
cat  CharCat(char)
state  (state,cat)
// read next character
// concatenate onto lexeme
// classify character
// take the transition
• This problem is trivial
— Save the characters
19
Table-Driven Scanners
Choosing a Category from an Ambiguous RE
• We want one DFA, so we combine all the REs into one
— Some strings may fit RE for more than 1 syntactic category
 Keywords versus general identifiers
 Would like to encode them into the RE & recognize them
— Scanner must choose a category for ambiguous final states
 Classic answer: specify priority by order of REs
Alternate Implementation Strategy
(return 1st)
(Quite popular)
• Build hash table of keywords & fold keywords into identifiers
• Preload keywords into hash table
• Makes sense if
Separate keyword
•
table can make
— Scanner will enter all identifiers in the table
matters worse
— Scanner is hand coded
Othersise, let the DFA handle them
(O(1) cost per character)
20
Table-Driven Scanners
Scanning a Stream of Words
• Real scanners do not look for 1 word per input stream
— Want scanner to find all the words in the input stream, in order
— Want scanner to return one word at a time
— Syntactic Solution: can insist on delimiters
 Blank, tab, punctuation, …
 Do you want to force blanks everywhere? in expressions?
— Implementation solution
 Run DFA to error or EOF, back up to accepting state
• Need the scanner to return token, not boolean
— Token is < Part of Speech, lexeme > pair
— Use a map from DFA’s state to Part of Speech (PoS)
21
Table-Driven Scanners
Handling a Stream of Words
// recognize words
state  s0
lexeme  empty string
clear stack
push (bad)
while (state  se) do
char  NextChar( )
lexeme  lexeme + char
if state ∈ SA
then clear stack
push (state)
cat  CharCat(char)
state  (state,cat)
end;
// clean up final state
while (state ∉ SA and state ≠ bad) do
state ← pop()
truncate lexeme
roll back the input one character
end;
// report the results
if (state ∈ SA )
then return <PoS(state), lexeme>
else return invalid
Need a clever buffering scheme, such as
double buffering to support roll back
22
Avoiding Excess Rollback
• Some REs can produce quadratic rollback
— Consider ab | (ab)* c and its DFA
— Input “ababababc”
 s0, s1, s3, s4, s3, s4, s3, s4, s5
— Input “abababab”
Not too
pretty
 s0, s1, s3, s4, s3, s4, s3, s4, rollback 6 characters
 s0, s1, s3, s4, s3, s4, rollback 4 characters
s0
DFA for
ab | (ab)* c
s1
b
s4
c
b
a s
2
s3
a
a
c
c
s5
 s0, s1, s3, s4, rollback 2 characters
 s0, s1, s3
• This behavior is preventable
— Have the scanner remember paths that fail on particular inputs
— Simple modification creates the “maximal munch scanner”
23
Maximal Munch Scanner
// recognize words
state  s0
lexeme  empty string
clear stack
push (bad,bad)
while (state  se) do
char  NextChar( )
InputPos  InputPos + 1
lexeme  lexeme + char
if Failed[state,InputPos]
then break;
if state ∈ SA
then clear stack
push (state,InputPos)
cat  CharCat(char)
state  (state,cat)
end
// clean up final state
while (state ∉ SA and state ≠ bad) do
Failed[state,InputPos)  true
〈state,InputPos〉← pop()
truncate lexeme
roll back the input one character
end
// report the results
if (state ∈ SA )
then return <PoS(state), lexeme>
else return invalid
InitializeScanner()
InputPos  0
for each state s in the DFA do
for i  0 to |input| do
Failed[s,i]  false
end;
end;
24
Maximal Munch Scanner
• Uses a bit array Failed to track dead-end paths
— Initialize both InputPos & Failed in InitializeScanner()
— Failed requires space ∝ |input stream|
 Can reduce the space requirement with clever implementation
• Avoids quadratic rollback
— Produces an efficient scanner
— Can your favorite language cause quadratic rollback?
 If so, the solution is inexpensive
 If not, you might encounter the problem in other applications of
these technologies
Thomas Reps, “`Maximal munch’ tokenization in linear
25
time”, ACM TOPLAS, 20(2), March 1998, pp 259-273.
Table-Driven Versus Direct-Coded Scanners
Table-driven scanners make heavy use of indexing
• Read the next character
state  s0 ;
index • Classify it
while (state  exit) do
char  NextChar( )
index • Find the next state
cat  CharCat(char )
• Branch back to the top
state  (state,cat);
Alternative strategy: direct coding
• Encode state in the program counter
— Each state is a separate piece of code
Code locality as
opposed to random
access in 
• Do transition tests locally and directly branch
• Generate ugly, spaghetti-like code
• More efficient than table driven strategy
— Fewer memory operations, might have more branches
26
Table-Driven Versus Direct-Coded Scanners
Overhead of Table Lookup
• Each lookup in CharCat or  involves an address calculation
and a memory operation
— CharCat(char) becomes
@CharCat0 + char x w
w is sizeof(el’t of CharCat)
@0 + (state x cols + cat) x w
cols is # of columns in 
w is sizeof(el’t of )
— (state,cat) becomes
• The references to CharCat and  expand into multiple ops
• Fair amount of overhead work per character
• Avoid the table lookups and the scanner will run faster
27
Building Faster Scanners from the DFA
A direct-coded recognizer for r Digit Digit
start: accept  se
lexeme  “”
count  0
goto s0
s0:
s1:
char  NextChar
lexeme  lexeme + char
count++
if (char = ‘r’)
then goto s1
else goto sout
char  NextChar
lexeme  lexeme + char
count++
if (‘0’  char  ‘9’)
then goto s2
else goto sout
s2: char  NextChar
lexeme  lexeme + char
count  0
accept  s2
if (‘0’  char  ‘9’)
then goto s2
else goto sout
sout: if (accept  se )
then begin
for i  1 to count
RollBack()
report success
end
else report failure
Fewer (complex) memory operations
No character classifier
28
Use multiple strategies for test & branch
Building Faster Scanners from the DFA
A direct-coded recognizer for r Digit Digit
start: accept  se
lexeme  “”
count  0
goto s0
s0:
s1:
char  NextChar
lexeme  lexeme + char
count++
if (char = ‘r’)
then goto s1
else goto sout
char  NextChar
lexeme  lexeme + char
count++
if (‘0’  char  ‘9’)
then goto s2
else goto sout
s2: char  NextChar
lexeme  lexeme + char
count  1
accept  s2
if (‘0’  char  ‘9’)
then goto s2
else goto sout
sout: if (accept  se )
then begin
for i  1 to count
If end of stateRollBack()
test is complex (e.g.,
success
many cases),report
scanner
generator should
endschemes
consider other
else (with
reportclassification?)
failure
• Table lookup
• Binary search
Direct coding the maximal munch scanner is easy, too.
29
What About Hand-Coded Scanners?
Many (most?) modern compilers use hand-coded scanners
• Starting from a DFA simplifies design & understanding
• Avoiding straight-jacket of a tool allows flexibility
— Computing the value of an integer
 In LEX or FLEX, many folks use sscanf() & touch chars many times
 Can use old assembly trick and compute value as it appears
— Combine similar states
(serial or parallel)
• Scanners are fun to write
— Compact, comprehensible, easy to debug, …
— Don’t get too cute
(e.g., perfect hashing for keywords)
30
Building Scanners
The point
• All this technology lets us automate scanner construction
• Implementer writes down the regular expressions
• Scanner generator builds NFA, DFA, minimal DFA, and then
writes out the (table-driven or direct-coded) code
• This reliably produces fast, robust scanners
For most modern language features, this works
• You should think twice before introducing a feature that
defeats a DFA-based scanner
• The ones we’ve seen (e.g., insignificant blanks, non-reserved
keywords) have not proven particularly useful or long lasting
31
Download
Related flashcards

Classes of computers

19 cards

X86 architecture

22 cards

MSN

28 cards

Web development

38 cards

Create Flashcards